Soon after the attack, U.S. President Franklin D.
Roosevelt appointed a commission of inquiry to determine
whether negligence had contributed to the success of the
Japanese raid on Pearl Harbor. The commission's report
found the naval and army commanders of the Hawaiian area,
Rear Admiral Husband E. Kimmel and Major General Walter C.
Short, guilty of “derelictions of duty” and “errors of
judgment”; the two men were retired. Other later inquiries,
however, differed in their conclusions. The Congress of the
United States, in an effort to dispose of the controversy,
decided on a full, public investigation after the war.
The bipartisan congressional committee opened its
investigation in November 1945. Testimony from many people
reviewed all known information about the attack on Pearl
Harbor. The committee reported its findings in July 1946. It
placed the primary blame on General Short and Admiral
Kimmel, who, however, were declared guilty only of errors of
judgment, and not of derelictions of duty. The committee
recommended the unification of the U.S. armed forces, which
occurred the following year. The USS Arizona National
Memorial, standing above the remains of the battleship in
Pearl Harbor, commemorates the Americans who died in the