There are several laws that have been adopted to
regulate the import, export, and sale of wildlife. There
are also laws that protect species from various forms
of inhumane treatment, including capturing and killing.Ê
The following summaries were taken from the US Fish &
Wildlife Service, Division of Law Enforcement.
Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (16 U.S.C.
* This Act makes it illegal to import, export, or take
bald or golden eagles, or to sell, purchase, or barter
their parts, or products made from them, including their
nests or eggs.
Migratory Bird Treaty Act (16 U.S.C. 703-712).
* Except as allowed by implementing regulations, this
Act makes it unlawful to pursue, hunt, kill, capture,
possess, buy, sell, purchase, or barter any migratory
bird, including the feathers or other parts, nests,
eggs, or migratory bird products.
Lacey Act (18 U.S.C. 42; 16 U.S.C. 3371-3378).
* This Act provides authority to the Secretary of the
Interior to designate injurious wildlife and ensure the
humane treatment of wildlife shipped to the United
States. Further, it prohibits the importation,
exportation, transportation, sale, or purchase of fish
and wildlife taken or possessed in violation of State,
Federal, Indian tribal, and foreign laws. The
Amendments strengthen and improve the enforcement
of Federal wildlife laws and improve Federal assistance
to the States and foreign governments in the
enforcement of their wildlife laws. Also, the act
provides an important tool in the effort to gain control
of smuggling and trade in illegally taken fish and wildlife.
Marine Mammal Protection Act (16 U.S.C. 1361-1407).
* This Act establishes a moratorium on the taking and
importation of marine mammals, including parts and
products, and defines Federal responsibility for
conservation of marine mammals, with management
authority vested in the Department of the Interior for
the sea otter, walrus, polar bear, dugong, and manatee.
Airborne Hunting Act (16 U.S.C. 742j-1).
* Section 13 of the Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956 is
commonly referred to as the Airborne Hunting Act, or
Shooting From Aircraft Act, and prohibits taking or
harassing wildlife from aircraft, except when protecting
wildlife, livestock, and human health or safety, as
authorized by a Federal- or State-issued license or
National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act of
1966 (16 U.S.C. 668dd-668ee).
* This Act constitutes an "Organic Act" for the National
Wildlife Refuge System by providing guidelines and
directives for administration and management of
allareas in the system including "wildlife refuges, areas
for the protection and conservation of fish and wildlife
that are threatened with extinction, wildlife ranges,
game ranges, wildlife management areas, or waterfowl
Endangered Species Act (16 U.S.C. 1531-1543).
* This Act prohibits the importation, exportation,
taking, and commercialization in interstate or foreign
commerce of fish and wildlife, and plants that are listed
as threatened or endangered species. The Act also
implements the provisions of the Convention on
International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild
Fauna and Flora (CITES).
Antarctic Conservation Act (16 U.S.C. 2401).
* The purpose of the Act is to provide for the
conservation and protection of the fauna and flora of
Antarctica and of the ecosystem upon which such fauna
and flora depend. The primary prohibitions of the Act
make it unlawful for any United States citizen to take
any native bird or mammal in Antarctica or to collect
any native plant from any specially protected area
within Antarctica. In addition, the Act makes it unlawful
for any United States citizen or any foreign person in
the United States to possess, sell, offer for sale,
deliver, receive, carry, transport, import, export, or
attempt to import or export from the United States any
native mammal or bird taken in Antarctica or any plant
collected in any specially protected area.
African Elephant Conservation Act (16 U.S.C.
* The purpose of the Act is to provide additional
protection for the African elephant. The Act
establishes an assistance program to elephant
producing countries of Africa and provides for the
establishment of an African Elephant Conservation
Fund. In addition, the Act places a moratorium on the
importation of raw or worked ivory from African
elephant producing countries that do not meet certain
criteria found in the Act.
Wild Bird Conservation Act of 1992 (16 U.S.C. 4901).
* The act promotes the conservation of exotic birds by
encouraging wild bird conservation and management
programs in countries of origin; by ensuring that all
trade in such species involving the United States is
biologically sustainable and to the benefit of the
species; and by limiting or prohibiting imports of exotic
birds when necessary to ensure that exotic wild
populations are not harmed by removal for the trade.
~Laws that Protect Endangered Species~