In an ionic bond one element gives
up one electron to another, if an element takes on another, extra, electron
it gets a negative charge from the electron that element then is a "anion"
or a negatively charged element. The other element is then a "cation" or
positively charged element because it lost an electron so it then has more
protons which gives it it's positive charge. Cations and anions both go
under the "ions" or an element with an electric charge. An anion can get
more than one electron. Ionic bonds normally stay together, but put them
in water and they dissociate. They may come together again but not for
long. The positive and negative charges once dissociated will have an electrical
charge. They will then be electrolytes because compounds that conduct electricity
when dissolved in water are called electrolytes which are just ions made
by the dissociation of an ionic compound.
In a covalent bond neither element
has enough strength to remove an electron from one another so the elements
share the electrons. Covalent compounds share the same electrons in a covalent
bond. They won't fall about, and will stay together if in water. This makes
them non electrolytes. They are also stronger than ionic bonds.
Acids and Bases Atoms