The Greeks developed three architectural systems called orders, which are pillars that were used for building ancient structures. They each had their own details. Temples were often built with these types of structures, and they were the biggest and most beautiful of their time.
If you wanted a sturdy building that would last for a long time, you would use the Doric order since it was the strongest pillar. If you wanted a decorative but not too complicated structure, you would use the Ionic order. And if you wanted an elegant, detailed, and graceful pillar you would use the Corinthian order.
The Doric order could not easily be destroyed. It wasn’t decorated with elaborate designs, or tiny details. It was very plain and simple. In mainland Greece and in other colonies in southern Italy and Sicily, they used this type of pillar.
The Parthenon was the temple of Athena Parthenos, a Greek goddess of wisdom, built in the 5th century BC. This building, like most others, received a lot of damage over the centuries.
When work began on the Parthenon temple in 447 BC, the Athenian Empire was very powerful. The architects worked on the temple until 434 BC. The Parthenon symbolizes the power and influence of a person named Perikies, an Athenian politician, who was very important to its construction.
The Parthenon was a Doric temple. It was built to replace two temples of Athena on the Acropolis, (the center of a town or city in Greece. Early Greeks built their towns around hills. Acropolis comes from the Greek words for "upper city") .One, stood south of the Parthenon temple. The other temple, which was still being built, stood in the same spot as the Parthenon.
This type of structure was thinner than the Doric and Corinthian styles, but it was also very elegant. The top of this pillar was decorated with a scroll- like design. This type of style was found in eastern Greece and the islands.
The Erechtheum was the temple from the middle classical period of Greek architecture and art. This was built between 421 BC and 405 BC. It contained sanctuaries to Athena Polias, the Greek goddess of wisdom, war, and peace, Poseidon, the god of the sea and its protector, and Erechtheus, the Athenian king.
This was not usually used in the Ancient Greek world, but it was often seen in Roman temples because the Romans had a more elegant style than the Greeks. The capital of this style was very decorative and detailed with acanthus leaves.
The Temple of Apollo
The oldest known example of the Corinthian style is at the Temple of Apollo at Bassae, which was made in 420 BC.