The great Mahele, Division of Land , clears the way for foreigners to acquire and own land in Hawai'i.
Masters and Servants Act paves the way for the enforcement of the contract-labor system in the courts and allows for importation of other countries.
Gold rush in California increases demand for Hawaiian sugar.
First Chinese contract laborers arrive. Between 1852 and 1884, 25,256 Chinese laborers are imported to work on Hawai'i's sugar plantations. As Chinese workers complete terms of their contracts, they leave the plantation workforce to establish their own farms and businesses.
Start of the American Civil War. Northern markers are cut off from sugar supplies from the South; demand for Hawaiian sugar increases.
First 148 Japanese contract laborers, known as gannenmono, arrive in Hawai'i. Due to poor treatment, this effort is largely unsuccessful. When an agreement is struck in 1870 for the return of these people to Japan, however, only 40 return, while the rest choose to remain in Hawai'i.
Reciprocity Treaty goes into operation, granting Hawai'i the right to export unrefined sugar to the U.S. duty free. American businessmen begin mass cultivation of sugar and pineapple to supply booming markets pm the U.S. continent.
First Portuguese arrive. Between 1878 and 1884, 9,471 Portuguese workers arrive. Numbers remain small as travel costs to import Portuguese from halfway around the world proved too costly.
Mass government-contracted labor (kanyaku imin) from Japan begin arriving in large numbers. Between 1882 and 1902, the number of Japanese plantation workers increases from 15 to 31,029. The percentage of Japanese on the plantations rises from 14 percent in 1886 to 69 percent in 1893.
"Bayonet Constitution" in Hawai'i is proclaimed by the "Reform Government," led largely by planter interests; King Kalakaua is stripped of his powers at gunpoint; Hawaiian citizenship is denied to all Asians; most Hawaiians are not allowed to vote.
Aided by U.S. Marines, the Hawaiian monarchy is overthrown by American revolutionaries on January 17, Japanese warship Naniwa is dispatched to the Islands to protect the interests of 25,000 Japanese laborers.
Private companies are allowed to take over the role of recruiting Japanese laborers. Between 1894 and 1900, 57,000 Japanese arrive in Hawai'i.
Annexation of Hawai'i by the U.S.; Spanish-American War; Philippines, Puerto Rico and Guam are ceded to the U.S.
Organic Act is signed by President McKinley, incorporating Hawai'i as a Territory of the U.S.; contract labor is prohibited with laws of U.S. applying to Hawai'i; many Japanese migrate to the mainland where wages are double.
First Okinawan immigrants arrive on S.S. China. The first group of Puerto Ricans arrive, following annexation of Puerto Rico to the U.S. in 1898.
By 1920, 2,095 Puerto Ricans were employed on Hawai'i's sugar plantations.
First Korean immigrants arrive aboard the S.S. Gaelic. Some 7,843 Koreans arrive until the Korean government stops emigration in 1905, due to reports of mistreatment of Koreans in Mexico.
First Filipino immigrants arrive. By 1916, 18,144 Filipinos arrive.
Executive order stops migration of Japanese laborers from Hawai'i, Mexico and Canada on March 14.
A shipload of 2,250 Spaniards arrive from Malaga to work on the plantations.
Gentlemen's Agreement restricts Japanese immigration to the U.S.
U.S. Congress prohibits further immigration from Japan. Between 1885 and 1924, a total of approximated 200,000 Japanese immigrate to Hawai'i, most of them to work on Hawaii's sugar plantations.
In all plantations cheap laborers were needed. Japanese contract laborers were brought in to work in the plantations, along with other ethnic groups.
High taxes in Hawaii was difficult, so some of the groups left except for the Japanese. They planned to plant their roots in the islands.
The work in the fields was hard. The Japanese got 15 dollars per month, and got slightly more than the Filipinos, and everyone did the same work in the fields.
The Japanese went on strike, but they lost. Eleven years later the Japanese and the Filipinos banded together to make a strike for higher wages. Again, they lost but they learned about the value of overlooking ethnic differences.