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The formation of soil happens over a very long period of time. It can take 1000 years or more. Soil is formed from the weathering of rocks and minerals. The surface rocks break down into smaller pieces through a process of weathering and is then mixed with moss and organic matter. Over time this creates a thin layer of soil. Plants help the development of the soil. How? The plants attract animals, and when the animals die, their bodies decay. Decaying matter makes the soil thick and rich. This continues until the soil is fully formed. The soil then supports many different plants.
Weathering is the process of the breaking down rocks. There are two different types of weathering. Physical weathering and chemical weathering.
In physical weathering it breaks down the rocks, but what it's made of stays the same. In chemical weathering it still breaks down the rocks, but it may change what it's made of. For instance, a hard material may change to a soft material after chemical weathering.
Stages in the Formation of Soil
stage 1 stage 2
stage 3 stage 4