Concrete is made through this process:
Bridges made with concrete can have one or more structural problems. Here they are:
- First, small stones or gravel are mixed with sand.
- Cement powder is added.
- Water is poured into the mixture, and the cement starts forming crystals.
- The crystals grow until they bind the sand and stones together into a solid mass.
Some of these problems can be overcome by placing wires, rods, or tubes in the concrete
while it is drying. This keeps the concrete from changing.
- Bending: compression (getting smaller) occurs on the upper part of the bridge
and tension (pulling apart) occurs on the lower.
- Shear: Parts of the deck slowly pass each other until a breaking point is reached.
- Buckling of the piers due to compression.
- (In suspension bridges only) tension (streching) occur in the cables and hangers.
- Torsion (twist): happens when the weight of the traffic on each side of the deck
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