The Supreme Court
The Supreme Court is the highest court in the United States. Many national cases were decided there. The judges in the Supreme court are called justices. There are nine justices on the staff. To become a justice you are appointed by a president. Justices serve on the staff for a life-time term. The Chief Justice is the head justice. The first Chief Justice was John Jay.
Some of the most important cases in the Supreme Court have changed the way our country's laws and justice process have acted such as the Miranda v. Arizona over police reading you your rights as you are arrested, or the Brown v. Kansas over segregation. The Marbury v. Madison case is over the Supreme Court changing unconstitutional laws to make a balance in the government. The New York Times v. Sullivan was over printing false reports of an official. Cases are also over other things such as the Roe v. Wade over abortion, or Lochner v. New York over unconstitutional laws limiting bakers to a 60 hour work week.
Some recent cases were the Correctional Services Corp v. Malesko over prisoner disability rights, and the Thomas v. Chicago Park District over having a license to have large events in a city park.