|Islamic State of Afghanistan, Republic|
Hamid Karzai (interim leader of Afghanistan)
|Most of Afghanistan
is covered with mountains. These mountains are rugged and experience many
earthquakes. In between mountain ranges and in the southwestern part of
Afghanistan there are lowland plains areas.
|Amu Darya (Oxus) River||Amu Darya plain||Hari Rud (Arius) River|
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|Afghanistan Relief Map|
the east and south
Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan along the north
|Climate||The climate of Afghanistan ranges from arid to semi-arid. Its winters are bitterly cold and the summers are hot.|
|Population||26,813,057 (2001 estimation)|
The people of Afghanistan are all members of one of the ethnic
groups that live there.
|Government||There is no central government of Afghanistan. Each ethnic region or faction governs itself using its own system of law. Each ethnic group has agreed that they will follow Islamic law when making their own laws and decisions. On September 28, 1996 the Islamic Taliban movement took over the governments of most of Afghanistan. The Taliban declared themselves the ruling government of Afghanistan, but most of the world does not recognize them as the government.|
|Coalition Military Advancement Map|
On August 19, 1919 Afghanistan became independent of the United Kingdom. Afghanistan has been at war within its own borders and with the world from the beginning. Since 1970 the ethnic factions of Afghanistan have been fighting against the Russian invasions or against themselves. A civil war has been going on in Afghanistan since the Russians decided to pull out of Afghanistan in the early 1990's.
|Bibliography and Citations|
|Photographic Citations: Photographic citations can be found by moving your mouse over the picture.|
Electronic Encyclopedia: http://www.encyclopedia.com/articles/00163.html
CIA Factbook: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/