The first castles were designed to shelter the local lord and his knights . They also used them to shelter terrified people facing enemy attacks ,but they were not good living spaces. Other buildings grew up on many castle areas. To provide the need of all whose job was there , or those who liked the king and queen which came from time to time. There could be a brew house ,laundry ,a gigantic backers oven to supply fresh food, plus there were workshops, dovecotes and stables. The later castles were surrounded by bigger ,but still strongly defended ,open spaces. Newer stone built walls were constructed to encircle gardens ,orchards, fish ponds, and exercise yards ,where horses can be ridden and knights could practice wrestling and archery. Towers were built at intervals along walls, to strengthen them, and also to provide extra space for workers and visitors. Inside the castle, living spaces became more comfortable. Wonderful tapestries hung on the strong stone walls of the great hall , and stopped most , but not all, of the drafts. Different chambers were built for the lord and his family, where they could all sit quietly, away from all the hustle and bustle of the hall. After about 1200, primitive lavatories(holes in the wall) started to be installed. Castle life was starting to become more civilized. The defensive walls that surrounded a castle were often several meters thick, and were composed of a double skin of masonry, with a space in between them. This space was used to provide living quarters for all the servants and visitors. There were usually a walkway on top of the walls, where the castle guards could keep watch. The walls were topped with battlements('shields' of stone with spaces between them), which allowed defenders to shoot arrows down on their enemy while remaining undercover. Many castles were designed to include a whole range of facilities, like a well to ensure the supply of good drinking water, a windmill to grind corn into flour, and a chapel for prayers.If the area enclosed by the walls of the castle were big enough, there would be a little room to keep livestock, usually the livestock was chickens and pigs. These made a welcome source of fresh food , and were particularly valuable if the castle was besieged or when the road was blocked by invading armies or even by deep snow. Pigs and chickens were also good for eating all sorts of scrapes. Famous architects were employed to design castles. We can learn much more about their methods from a sketchbook left behind by, Villard de Honnecout, who lived and worked in France during the 13th century. The notebook of his showed plans and how they were carefully worked out for each building, according to the needs of the people who were paying for it and the possibilities for the site. De Honnecourt also designed machines to make building easier, but we do not now how many of these were made, or if they actually worked.