||Egypt is located in the northern part of
Africa. From this area one of the world's oldest civilizations grew. To the north of Egypt
is the Mediterranean Sea. To the east of Egypt is the Red Sea. Farmers first settled in
Egypt along the Nile River around 5000 B.C. The Nile River flows into the Mediterranean
Sea from the south. Egypt receives little rainfall. Without the Nile River, the area would
be entirely desert. Before modern dams were built the Nile River would flood each year.
The floods usually began in June and
ended in October. These floods would bring thick, rich mud from the mountains of central
Africa. The mud would spread over the river banks creating a fertile ground for the early
Egyptians to grow their crops.
|Two kingdoms developed along the Nile
River. The kingdom in Lower Egypt was called the red crown and the one in Upper Egypt was
known as the white crown. In about 3200 B. C. the pharaoh of the north conquered the south
and Egypt became united. The pharaoh's name was King Narmer or Menes. Menes didn't
try to change the people in Upper and Lower Egypt. He allowed the two separate tribes to
keep their own special gods and traditions. He founded the first capital of Egypt where
the two lands met. It was called Memphis. No more wars were fought for hundreds of years.
This pharaoh is wearing the combined
crowns or double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. The front is the rounded crown of
Upper Egypt and the flat high backed portion is the crown of Lower Egypt.
One of the reasons that Egyptians were
able to develop an advanced civilization is because they were surrounded by deserts. This
kept invaders out. With the rich deposits of the Nile River, the sunny weather, and the
well organized government, the Egyptian people were able to make a good living with only a
small portion of their day. This gave the people time to invent writing, build irrigation
systems, and build magnificent pyramids within 2000 years.