The tador was a popular medieval European drum. It was used as an accompaniment to dancing also as an instrument in military bands. The tador was supported by a strap worn over the shoulder. The drummer then beats the drum with a stick held in one hand and played a pipe with the other hand. The tador is still used occasionally as a folk instrument.
The kalengo is a waisted drum from Nigeria. It is known as a "talking" drum, because its sound imitates the tonal quality of many West African languages. The kalengo is played by beating a curved stick against one of the heads. The drummers can alter the pitch of the kalengo by pressing the cords, which changes the tension of the head.
The darabuka is a goblet drum from the Middle East. The goblet drum, named for its shape, is often decorated elaborately. This example from Egypt features geometric inlaid design in tortoiseshell and mother-of-pearl. The bodies of these drums are made of wood or pottery; the head are skin. The drummer plays the darabuka by striking the center and edges of the head with both hands.
The tambourine is small frame drum that originated in the Middle East. The instrument is constructed of a single membrane stretched over a circular rim, which usually has metal jingle disks attached. It can be played in one of three ways: tapping the membrane with the finger, shaking the instrument, or striking it against the body.
These Rattle drums are usually hand-held drums examples of two such drums are, which are a type of frame drum. The Indian version has a single head made from a stretch skin that is struck by the two pellets when the handle is shaken. The same process is used with the Chinese t'ao-ku, which has five heads and is about 3000 years old.
The snare drum, also known as the side drum, is used in numerous modern orchestras and bands. It is a descendant of the medieval tabor. The lower head (shown inverted and transparent in this photograph), is fitted with snares, length of wire, that vibrate when the drum head (shown facing down) is stuck. Snares are made of gut, nylon, or wire and typically range from 8 to 20 in number.
This instruments called a Cymbals are percussion instruments and members of the family of musical instruments known as idiophones. They are made of bronze and are played by being struck together or by striking a simple cymbal with a stick or wire brush. Ancient cymbals from Assyria date from 800 BC. These cymbal are made by Zildjian in Armenia.
The cabaša, a Latin America percussion instrument in the idiophone family, is made of wood with steel beads strung on the outside. It is played by either twisting the cabaša in the air, striking it on the palm, or rotating the beads back and forth in the palm. The instrument is an adaptation of the Afro-Brazilian cabaša, which is a gourd covered with small seeds or beads.