Black holes cannot be observed directly and therefore cannot
be "discovered". The indirect evidence for two kinds of black holes
is now overwhelming. Those of a few solar masses produced by supernovae
and much larger ones at the center of some galaxies.
The existence of bodies with
gravitational fields strong enough to allow nothing to escape has
been a topic of speculation for hundreds of years. Einstein's general
theory of relativity (published in 1916) predicts just the kinds
of object we are now inferring.
Perhaps the first object to be
generally recognized as a black hole is the X-ray binary star Cygnus
X-1. It's effect on it's companion star suggested as early as 1971
that it must be a compact object with a mass too high for it to
be a neutron star. (That was 2 years after the American astronomer
John Wheeler coined the term 'black hole').
F o r m a t i o n
How do they form? Perhaps if a star was large enough and it
collapsed, maybe nothing (not even light) could escape from it. All
the matter of a star (even it's energy) would be drawn into a denser
and denser single point. At first Einstein thought that this couldn't
be possible! He though something in nature would prevent this. The
"Cosmological Constant" would have to prevent this. He later regretted
this and said it was a huge mistake! He found in his equations pointing
toward difficult possibilities: the expansion of the universe and
the collapse of matter into an infinitely dense point. Einy buddy,
your a GENIUS! Have a little more faith in your mathematics! In recent
years we've already proven the the universe is in fact expanding and
in a few years i'm sure we'll prove the existence of black holes.
Some believe that if two black holes connected in some mysterious
way it will become in essence a worm hole.
D e t e c t i o n
If it emits no visible light how can we find them? Black holes
devour everything around them, no matter what. Planets, stars,
even whole galaxies! We can tell it's there because it is feeding
on other energy masses that we see being dragged into the center.
Some black holes that astronomer's have detected are upwards of 10
solar masses (1 Solar mass = Mass of the sun). We can also see stars
that are revolving around invisible points of incredible mass that
are obviously there, but we can't see.
I n s i d e What would it be like to enter a black hole?
This is a place where all of Einstein's and Newton's theories and
equations fail. A singularity, or a worm hole? What ever happens there
are a few things we know...
As you approach the center you'll
begin to stretch. On Earth there is a slight difference between
the gravity pulling on your feet then on your
head. Your body is slightly being stretched out. Well, in a black
hole it is much greater. Nothing can survive this stretching. You'll
be stretched and crushed into a singularity. Spaghettifacation as
cosmologists like to say. That is what we know of, but what about
worm holes? Skipping around from universe to universe through these
worm holes is not to unreal. Could this be the fastest way to travel
through space and time?
Here are some of my theories again. All
the galaxies are spinning around a singular black hole waiting to
be sucked in. Slowly, but an inevitable consequence of the fate
for all galaxies. Is there any way to stop them? Essentially no,
but I believe if there is no more matter near for it to suck up
it will have to die out then. Right? I guess that's my "cosmological
constant". If my theories are correct we have eons before this will
happen. Our sun will burn out and we will have to find a new blue
planet to live on. Don't worry, we'll be long dead and forgotten