Balance without friction
forces work on the given body, it can happen that their work compensate
in a way not to make any influence on the motion. In that case we
can say that the body is in balance. The balance of the body, when
under work of outer forces is somewhat broader that 1. Newton
law, since the uniform circular motion is included.
The conditions for the balance
If we want
to have balance of the body, it not enough that several forces work
on the given body, but it is also necessary to that those forces
work in the same direction. Observe now three forces which work
in the same plane and which are unparallel: F1, F2, F3. Point of
application of the force that works on the rigid body can be moved
freely on the line on which the force is working. In that way points
of application of the forces F1 and F2 can always be brought into
the same point (as two straight lines always cross) and the forces
F1 and F2 can be exchanged for their resultant R (picture - page
115). Now we have the action of only two forces R and F3. The balance
will be obtained if forces R and F3 are equal and act in the same
condition of the balance is: (sigma)Fx=0.
condition of the balance is: Mz=0 (the sum of the moment of the
force must be equal to 0).
The kinds of balance
body that is in the state of balance is slightly moved from the
balance position, the size and direction of the forces that act
can be changed. If the work of the forces in the changed position
is so that the body is moved into the initial position, we can say
that the balance is stable. If, in opposite, forces work so that
the position makes the body more out of balance that we can say
that balance is labile. If the body in other case, being moved,
keeps in balance then we can say that the balance is indifferent.
example of the all those kinds of balance is shown on the picture.
Cone put on it's base is in the stable balance (a). The cone put
on it's peak is in labile balance (b). The cone put on it's side
is in the indifferent balance (c).
The balance in the presence of friction
it happens that the surface of one body is gliding over the other
body, each of those bodies act to the other one with the friction
force, which act in the direction parallel to the touch of the surfaces
and opposite to the direction of the body movement. We can observe
the forces which act on the cube laid on the horizontal surface.
(picture - page 121.). The weight of the cube G and work of the
surface P on the cube are annulled and the cube is in balance. We
can now tie the cube with the thin thread and pull the thread slightly,
in a manner not to move the cube. As the body is still in balance,
three forces P, G and T (the tension of the thread) must annul,
in other words, P must have the horizontal component equal and of
the opposite direction to the tension T. So the force is in this
case leaned left and not vertical like in the preceding case. The
component of the force P parallel to the surface will be called the force of the static friction fs. The vertical component of the force
P, marked as N is the normal
component of the force acting on the cube itself. We can so see
that the surface acts on the cube by the force n (equal to the weight
of the body) and force fs, which acts parallel to the surface in
the direction opposite to the tension of the thread. The resultant
force P is leaned oppositely to the direction of the acting of the
we enlarge the tension of the thread, in other words if we pull
stronger, we will reach a critical point Tk, at which the cube will
be moved. In other words, the static friction fs can reach a critical
value above which it can not raise any more, so the acting of the
thread tension will be stronger.