POLLUTION OF THE GROUND
The pollution of the soil is defined as the addition to the soil, of materials that can modify qualitative and quantitatively their natural characteristics and uses. Most of the coming solid residues of urban agglomerates (trash, sewer) and of industrial and agricultural activities, it is still deposited in the soil without any control and treatment.
They contaminate soil and sheets freatics easily, besides they produce poisonous gases, that it also provoke serious environmental effects, as acid rain, greenhouse effect,... for instance, the methane produced by the anaerobic decomposition of garbage and sewer can accumulate in bags in the soil, causing explosion risk.
Main pollutant of the ground:
The trash - this it is constituted in a great concern for the modern environmentalists.
- Polluted waters, solid and liquid efluents thrown directly on the ground coming of chemical industries and of home sewer.
- Pesticides: they are coming residues of agricultural activities. The intensive agricultural systems with use of great amounts of pesticides and fertilizers can provoke the acidity of the soils, the mobility of the heavy metals, and to originate the salinização of the soil and/or the toxidade of the plants with excess of nutritious. The pulverization, taken by the wind, it helps his/her propagation, causing evils besides in the own farmers.
They are classified in: fungicides, herbicides and pesticides. They exercise environmental impact, so much for the man, because they are poisonous and some even cancerous - as for animals and plants. Some vegetable species are being rare, because they are killed by the herbicides.
The knownest pesticides are the organoclorados, such as DDT and the dieldrin. Small amounts of these you nourish chemistries accumulate in the bodies of the animals and they are last ahead in the alimentary chain. His/her use is prohibited in many developed countries, but due to his/her low cost, these substances are still being used in some places, mainly in the areas more poor of the world. More and more farmers are increasing the doses of pesticides due to the resistance that some insect-curses acquired against them.
- garbage: - home - hospitalar - industrial - nuclear, etc.
The home garbage contains remains of what consumed in the daily: paper, packings (plastic surgeries, of glass, of cardboard, isopor, etc...), fabric, wood, cans, dump and remains of food.
The garbage hospitalar contains flasks of medicines, cotton, injection needles and other objects - that offer risk of contamination for pathogenic organisms.
The industrial garbage can present paper, synthetic materials (plastic, isopor, eraser), packings inflammable and/or impregnated of poisonous or poisonous chemical substances.
The nuclear garbage should be isolated in special packings, because it can provoke radioactive contamination. (to see Effects of the Radioactivity).