The main forms of pollution that affect our water holds, are classified in biological, sedimentary an chemistry. The main pollution forms that affect our reservations of water, they are classified in biological, thermal, sedimentary and chemistry.
Biological pollution: : it results of the presence of microorganisms pathogenics (bactérias, virus, protozoa, worms); especially in the drinking water.
1- Diseases transmitted directly through the water:
- typhoid fever
- fever paratyphoid
- bacillary desinteria
- amebíase or desintery amebiana
- infectious hepatitis
2 -Diseases transmitted indirectly through the water:
- yellow fever
- gastro-intestinal pertubations of obscure aetiology
- infections of the eyes, ears, throat and nose.
Thermal pollution happens freqëntemente for the discard in the rios,lagos, oceans,... of great volumes of warm water used in the resfriamento of a series of industrial processes. The temperature increase causes three effects:
The solubility of the gases in water decreases as increase of the temperature. There is like this a decrease in the amount of oxygen dissolved in the water, harming the breathing of the fish and of others you encourage aquatic.
There is a decrease of the time of life of some aquatic species, affecting the reproduction cycles.
The action of the pollutant ones is already potentiated presents in the water, for the increase in the speed of the reactions.
Sedimentary pollution results of the accumulation of particles in suspension. Those sediments pollute in several ways:
The sediments block the entrance of the solar rays in the sheet of water, interfering in the photosynthesis of the aquatic plants and reducing the capacity of the aquatic animals to come and to find food.
The sediments also drive pollutant chemical and biological in them adsorbed.
Chemical pollution is maybe, the more problem of all the forms of aquatic pollution, it is caused by the presence of noxious or undesirable chemical products. Their effects can be subtle and to take a long time for usto feel. The more common pollutant agents are:
Eutrofization: agricultural fertilizers are dragged by the irrigation and for the rains for the underground sheets, lakes and rivers. They contain mainly the íonsNO3- e
PO4-3. When the fertilizers and other nutrients vegetables enter in the stopped waters of a lake or a river of slow waters, they cause a fast growth of superficial plants, especially of the algas,que they turn the poisonous waters. As those plants grow, they form a rug that can cover the surface, isolating the water of the oxygen of the air, taking ä death of the fish and others encourage aquatic. It is the known phenomenon as water floration and it turns reservoirs of drinking water (ponds, lakes,...) useless for the use.
Composed organic synthetic: the increase of the industrial production of composed organic synthetic: plastics, detergents, solvents, paints, insecticides, herbicides, products pharmaceutical, addictive alimentary etc - many of those products give color or flavor to the water and some are poisonous.
Petroleum: it is considered that approximately 6 million tons of petroleum are spilled in the sea every year, a part due to accidents in the embarkment and disembarkation of that ore in the ships. The spilling of petroleum in the sea ends up causing the death of great amounts of plants, fish and sea birds.
Organic and minerals compound : the discard of those compositions can cart harmful variations in the acidity, in the alkalinity, in the salinity and in the toxicity of the waters. A particularly dangerous class of composed are the heavy metals (As, Zn, Pb, Cd, Hg, Ni, Sn, etc), many of them are linked to degenerative alterations of the central nervous system, once they are not metabolized by the organisms produces the bioacumulation effect: the more water polluted, larger the accumulation is ingested of these in the fabrics of the organism.
Sewer:Certain sewer residues are regularly thrown to the sea. The sewer is potentially harmful to the health, to swim in polluted waters can cause unpleasant disturbances, as gastroenterites, cutaneous irritation and ear infections, nose and throat. A research in the United States verified that on average 18 in each 1.000 people that take a bath in polluted waters get sick.
Bifenols polichlorates and the environment: The bifenols polichlorates (PCBs) they are complex chemical products used in the electric industry. They can become extremely dangerous if they penetrate in the atmosphere for that its use it is being reduced. However, they reached the sea atmosphere and now they are found in the body of many encourage. Why is absorbed by an animal PCB is not eliminated of its body, staying in him. That chemical product can reduce the resistance of the body to diseases, to reduce the capacity of the children's learning, to damage the central nervous system, to cause cancer and to affect the fetuses.