|  address://sailing vessels|
|THE NOVGOROD VESSEL|
After an exit of the Novgorod area from Kievskaya Russ (1136) in the basin of the lake Ilmen
The independent feudal republic was formed. Its capital " the Mister Great Novgorod ",
Was on a joint of trade ways " from varyag to the Greeks " and Volga, became one of the important points of
Foreign trade and original shipbuilding in Russia.
The trade connections of Novgorod expanded from Flandria and the cities of trade-political union of
Ginsa (in which Novgorod was also included) up to Astrakhan and Konstantinopol. On these ways already in the XIII century
Went strong seaworthy decked sailing Novgorod vessels-"the boos", "the ushkui","the shitic" and others,
Which could take up to 6-6,5 thousand poods of a cargo, that is about 100 ò in the holds (according to some
sources - up to 200 ò of cargoes).
The ship builders of ancient Novgorod used the instruments quite perfect for the time
Work: axes, chisels, drills, iron plane addices. From local ores they made iron, applied
Metal fastenings widely.
The length of the Novgorod vessel was about 20 ì,the width 4,5-5,5 ì,the daught 2 m. On knock-down mast there was set
One square sail of 70-80 square meters area, decorated by a cross. In
The case of the calm weather there were used oars. The vessel contained 25-30 men of a crew and 15-20 warriors.
|THE POMORA CASTLE|
For navigation in ice of Pomora especially strong vessels were built, in particular sea (foreign-made) castles,
Intended for distant sailings. The XIII century Pomora castle was a framing decked vessel with
Transomstern and an underhung rudder.The ship framing was divided cross bytransverse bulk heads into three compartments with
The hatches on a deck. In a stern hatch there was a cabin of a master (captain) and there were stored seaworthy
Tools, in a fore hatch there was placed a team of 25-30 men and there stood a brick oven for
coocing food, on the middle hatch there was a cargo hold of the depth up to 4 m.The carrying capacity of a large
castle was up to 200 ò (in the beginning of the XVI century - up to 300 ò), the length - 18-25 ì, the width 6-8 ì, the height of a board
2,5-3,5 ì, the draught- 1,5-2,7 m. On the castle there was a dowshprit and three masts: the first with the square sails,
the last - with the gaff-sails. Area of sails achieved 460 square meters, that allowed at
the fare wind to pass up to 300 kms per day. On the large castles there were till two anchors of up to 0,5 ò weight
Everyone and, besides there was a spare one. Anchor ropes of length 140 ì were produced from leather, later from
hemp. The anchors were raised manually by usual capstan.
In the beginning of XV century the Russian castle quite met the requirements to the sea
sailing vessel. On such vessels Novgorod navigators went fishing from a mouth of Neva and
Further up to ancient city. The construction of the castle was stopped in Russia in the beginning of XVIII century.
|THE POMORA COURT |
The court -an ancient Pomora sailing-rowing vessel of XI-XIX centuries. It had the specific lines for
Ice navigation, was equipped with a mast, an underhung rudder and oars. In the beginning the courts were built without
Using of metal: the fastened by wooden pins the ship framing was covered with the planking by belts.
The length of such a vessel was 10-15 ì, the width 3-4 ì, the draught 1-1,5 m. At a fair wind there was
Put a square sail, sometimes made from hide, allowing to develop the speedof a vessel 6-7 units. In
XVI-XVII Centuries this type of a vessel was distributed for Ural in Siberia, having undergone large changes
The length of the court increased till 20-25 ì, the width up to 5-8 ì ,the draught -up to 2 m. The vessel accomodated 10-15 men
Of a team and up to 30 people of the craft trade.The courts for " a sea course " were very strong. The framing was fixed
By iron nails, bolts and pins. The Grooves and joints of the planking were tighten with tarred hemp,
Filled in with pitch and covered with battens on clamps. To clamp the court completely, it was required more than
3000 special clamps. It was necessary to have about 1000 m of various ropes. The sail of height 14 ì was sewed from
Separate panels of the general area more than 230 square meters. In the end XVI-beginning of XVII century
They began to build framed large three-masted courts. On these courts to manage a rudder control there was a
Steering wheel. On a stern there was arranged "kasenka" - a small cabin for a vaster (captain) and for a master"s helper.
The team and the galley were placed in a hold. To raise an anchor from water on a tank there was manual capstain.
At fair winds the vessel passed under a sail up to 250 kms per day.
|THE FIRST RUSSIAN SAILING SHIP "FREDERICK" |
The reign of Mikhail Fedorovich in 1634 was marked by the historical event:
The embassy of Shlesvig-Golshtein duchy arrived in Moscow with the unusual mission. At the request of the duchy
The embassy received the sanction of Russian king to construct ten transport vessels and to navigate
in the Volga and the Caspian sea to Percy (Iran) to purchase silk. In the letter of the king given to
Nizhniy Novgorod voevoda and to deacon, the following conditions were put: " the Ships for them are to be build in our land,
Where they will find such woods, which are suitable for that business, and that wood is to be bought by them from our people by means of free trade, and the carpenters for that ship business, to help their shipbuilding masters should be engaged and paid in the contract terms...
And firstly - not to hide the ship business from those carpenters". The construction was conducted in the shipyard in Nizhni Novgorod. In the summer of 1636
The vessel was constructed and named in the honour of the duke Golshtein "FREDERICK", and the flag of the duchy was lifted on it.
There was flat-bottomed three-masted sailing ship. Its length was 35 ì, the width 12 ì, the draught 2
M. In silent weather the vessel could move using twelve pairs of large galley oars.
The ship was armed with several guns. When it was sailing in the sea there were 15 officers, 27
sailors and 78 members of embassy on it. The appearance of "Frederick" on the Volga and in the Caspian sea caused a huge
Sensation. However at the first sailing the ship got in a storm and was thrown out in the area of Derbent.
The construction of other transport courts was not held.
|THE BOAT OF PETER I |
The boat of Peter I -a small oak deckles one-masted vessel. It's supposed that it was made
in England. The date of construction is not known,it was delivered in Russia in the 40 years of XVII century.
The displacement tonnage was about 1,3 ò, the length 6 ì, the width - 1,97 m. In May, 1688 the boat was repaired, and
The young king made navigation on it in the river Yaus and on a pond Prosyanoe in Ismailovo. Then the boat was
transported to the lake Pereslavskoe (Pleshcheevo). From these sailings began a serious
Enthusiasm of the future emperor for the ship business and naval sciences.The boat, on expression of the king, was " a seed bearing thing"
for the Russian fleet.
Till 1722 it was kept in Moscow, and then it was solemnly delivered in St.Petersburg. In honour
Of the Baltic fleet Victories in the Northern war in summer of 1723 the boat was transported to Kronshtadt, where it was launched
and under the imperial standard lengthways passed the battle(dashing) ships laying on the anchors in a
Roadstead. The commander of the boat was the first general - admiral of the Russian fleet F. M. Apraksin, the rudder was held by the
Emperor, and it was oared by the nearest campaignes. During the solemn dinner in honour
Of Victories above the swedes Peter I named the boat as the grandfather of the Russian fleet. In the same year the boat wasput
" For an eternal storage " in the Petropavlovskaya fortress. However it did not become "a useless" relic.
Some times it was demonstrated the on celebrations in honour of famous events. In
The present time the boat is kept in the Central naval museum in St.-Petersburg.
|THE ARKHANGELSK TRADE VESSEL |
Simultaneously with the construction of the military ships Peter I arranged the creation of the sea
Transport fleet. During the second arrival in Arkhangelsk in 1694 he ordered to build
" The ships for the sea business " (that is for the whole trade).The construction of the first merchant vessel
Was completed in 1697. After that in Solombalskaya shipyard there was simultaneously begun
The construction of six trade vessels. On all probability, they were under construction under the drawing brought
From Holland by the ship " St. Prophecy ", and represented a version of a cat. An underwater part of a ship made from a pine wood was tarred with "the hard resin". The characteristics of Solombal
cats were more modest after-castle - "kasenka", which was used for accommodation of
the skipper and his assistants, and the presence of almost at waterline, to the left of the stern-post , "the window for
charging wood ",the original cargo-port for reception of wood directly from water. For loading other
goods there were two large hatches : one on the middle-deck, another -on the after-castle.
Raising of anchors on Russian merchant vessels was made by elementary wooden capstan,
Taking place at once after the fore-mast. The vessel had complete lines of a forecastle, straight line (transom-stern) and
ratio of width to length was close to four : the greatest length was 45,33 ì, the width without the planking -10,74
M. the Height of a surface board in the middle was equalled 4,72 m. The carrying capacity of a vessel achieved 840 ò.
For repulse of possible attacks of the pirates there was established from 8 up to 37 guns of small
gauge on a vessel, there were cut the gun-ports with the gun-port shutters on iron loops for them in the board sides.
|THE SAILING-ROWING FRIGATE "The APOSTLE PETER" |
The Azov campaign of 1695 finally convinced Peter I that without the presence of the fleet he will not be able to tale possession of even a rather weak seaside fortress. The centre of shipbuilding became Voronezh.
Here in the shipyard in 15 versts from where the river Voronezh flow in Don in April, 1696 there was launched
36-guns sailing-rowing frigate " The Apostle Peter ". The ship was constructed under the drawings and with the participation
" Of the skilful shipbuilding master of galleys " the Dane August Meiyer, becoming subsequently
the commander of the same second 36-guns ship " The Apostle Pavel ".
The length of the frigate was 34,4 ì, the width - 7,6 m. The ship was flat-bottomed. The boards in the top part of the vessel
Were filled up inside, that complicated falling aboard of another vessels. The after-castle was open, on the cut fore-castle there remained
Platforms for accommodation of a team. The ship had three masts with top masts and a bowsprit with
Vertical jib-boom. The fore- and the main-sailing was made by the bottom sails and the top sails. On the mizzen-mast there was only a spanker. Besides there were 15 pairs of oars for the case of calm weather and for manoeuvre
For 14 years " The Apostle Peter " served rather successfully for the Azov fleet. In 1712
After unsuccessful Prussian campaign the Azov fleet stopped the existence. Destiny of the ship
" The Apostle Peter " is unknown, though Peter I gave the instruction " to keep it eternally as an example for superiority".
|THE SHIP "GOTO PREDISTINATSIYA" (Prediction of God)" |
The Ship keel was layed in November, 1698 in Voronezh shipyard,the ship was launched on April 27 (1700
old style). The construction was conducted under the project, drawings and at personal participation of Peter I.
The talented Russian shipbnilders - " the master of proportions " F. Sklyayev and skilful
carpenter L. Vereshchagin helped him.The Length of a vessel was 36 ì, the width 9,5 ì, the draught - 2,9 m. On the bottom deck
There were Twenty six guns, on the top one- twenty four of 8 poundsguns and on the quarter deck - eight of the
3-pounds quns. Crew of a ship consisted of 253 men. During the construction there were undertaken essential constructive
Improvements. Earlier, the Keel of the ship was produced from one massive bar. Peter I ordered
to produce it from two bars fastened among themselves with wooden pins. In case of impact, with the remained intact, only the bottom bar would fall off the vessel.
design was implimented in England only in 40 years of the XIX century.
THE SHIP "GOTO PREDISTINATSIYA" (Prediction of God)"
was not only the first 58-guned ship of domestic
Construction, but it also also a sample of sculpture-decorative masterpiece, work of art in style of
borroco of Peter's times. The bow of a ship and the stern were decorated with the carving and also with the garlands on the gun sides covered with gilding
, covers of ports were painted in fire-red colour, The hull was white with two light-blue
stripes. Ïåòð I was very pleased with the ship: " rather beautiful, is fair of a proportion, is a fair piece of
art and of fare size THE SHIP "GOTO PREDISTINATSIYA" (Prediction of God)"
was included into The Azov
Fleet till 1711.
|THE TOPSAIL SCOUT |
Balakhna - the Volga city of Nizhniy Novgorod gubernia in the beginning of the XVIII century became the centre of the shipbuilding.
In its shipyards the very strong seaworthy vessels - scouts were built which intended for
The transportations by the Caspian sea of fishproducts and other cargoes.
The pine, the fur-tree wood and partially Persian oak (temir-agach)
, or " an iron tree " served as building materials for the scouts. For
The fastenings of details of a vessel framing there were used iron bolts and wooden pins, and the longitudinal
bars of more than 30 ñì thickness and of 40 ñì width, which sheathed its flat bottom, which were connected
By iron clamps. Such a technology of construction gave scouts the increased strength and
Durability: they served for 20-25 years. The vessel was sheer of a deck, clumsy and crank on a wave. Its
Deck was laid from boards of 6-7 sm thickness. Under the quarter deck there was a cabin for the pilot, and behind the mainmast -
The spacious kitchen with the Russian brick oven.
The basic dimensions of a scout : the length - 24,5-46 ì, the width - 7-11,3 ì, the depth of a hold - 3,7-5,2
ì, the draught with a cargo 3,6-4,9 ì, the carrying capacity 250-500 ò. The crew consisted of 12-15 men.
There were two or three anchors of weight from 400 kg up to 1 ò, the length of the anchor hemp ropes was 200-250 m. A rudder
Was activated by the tiller by means of tiller-tools. On these ships there were usually established,
Fore-masts and the main-masts, but at the length of the vessel more than 27,5 ì there was one more - back, or
cross-mast. On two-masted scouts there was brig sailing fighting aguipment, on three-masted ones-
corvet fighting equipment.
|CROSSMASTED SCOUT |
Other craft trade vessls, which were under construction in Balakhna city for the Caspian sea, were
crosmasted scouts. Their design and the way of construction are similar with the designs and technologies of the
Construction of the topsaled scout. The difference consisted in dimentions and sailing arms. The the crossmasted scout
had the length of a deck 17-24 ì, the width -5-6,7 ì, the depth of hold -3,4-4,6 ì and
the Carrying capacity -120-250 ò. The first mast was called as large, and the back - a cross-mast. It was
much more shorter then the foremast . The masts were made of two trees, which were jointed lengtitudinally by
Iron bands. Both masts had gaffs. The gaff of the large mast was lashed to the trysail,
Called the main sail. The mizzen sail was lashed to the spanker gaff. The bowshprit was solid, without a jib-boom.
The main top sail was lashed to the main top sail yard. The yard, to
which this sail was lashed, was called bram-top-yard. Ahead of the main mast there were lateen sails:
fore staysals and two kluvers. The kluvers cross -masts had two yards: the bottom - cross sailyard and the top -
cross-bram-sail-yard. These yards were established for an ornament, the sails were not on them . Two anchors of weight
250 and 750 kg with the hemp rope of length 200-250 ì provided reliable anckorage. The crew of the
Vessel consisted of 10-14 men.
|FRIGATE "STANDARD" |
Northern war already in the initial period convinced Peter, that by forces of one, even if it is a good
prepared army it is impossible to gain the coast of the Baltic sea. It was authorized
to begin the construction of the fleet. On March 24, 1703 ( Old style) in Olonetskaya shipyard on the river
Svir. The shipbuilding master Vebe Gerens layed down the first Russian military ship of
the Baltic fleet - frigate. Its length was 27,5 ì,the width - 7,3 ì, the average draught - 2,7 m. The Crew consisted of 120
In 1703 ôðåãàò received a name "Standard", on September 8 the same
Year (Old style) the standard of a new sample was lifted on its topmast. The Ship under
the captain Peter Michailov.s (Ïåòð I) command passed the Ladoga lake leading seven new
constructed ships and stayed to an anchor in a roadstead of a fortress Shlisselburg. Subsequently it took active
part in the Northern war. Frigate "Standard" was included into the structure of the Russian fleet for more than 25 years.
|SEMIGALLEY (SCAMPAWAY) |
The galley - wooden rowing vessel created by the venetian in the VII century, appeared in Russia during
Ïåòðå I reign. During the capture of (June 19, 1696) (Old style)) the Turkish fortress of Azov within the
Russian fleet there participated 23 two-masted galleys, constructed " on the Dutch sample ".
Construction of the galleys for the Baltic fleet began in olonetskaya shipyard founded in 1703, and from
1712 - in the shipyard in St.Petersburg. Taking into account specific features of the Baltic theatre of
Military actions ( skerries, shallows, unstable winds), Peter I created skerry rowing fleet,
Which basis consisted of semigalleys, or scampaways (ital. sampare - to disappear and via - away).
They had the length of 36,6-39,6 ì, the width of 4,8-5,5 ì and little daught. These were the one and
Two-masted vessels, with lateen sails, they had up to 18 pairs of oars and could have up to 200 men. There fighting eguipment consisted of three - six 12-pounds guns and 16-20 basses (1-2-ôóíòîâûå falsconet).
Home galleys and scampaways were better adapted to action in coastal areas, than
the large Swedish sailing ships. On July 27, 1714 (Old style) Russian fleet in a group of 99
galleys and semigallays commanded by the general - admiral the count F. M. Apraksin (avant guarde was commanded by
Peter I) gained the first large sea victory above the Swedes in Gangutski battle, and on July 27 1720
Year (Old style) 66 rowing vessels commanded by the general M. M. Golitsin gained not
less famous victory at the Grengam island.
|THE GALLEY "DVINA" |
The galley "Dvina" - a unique in the Russian fleet 25-banked (50-oared) three-masted vessel.
It was constructed on " Venetian manner" by the apprentice I. Kalubnev under
the supervision of Venetian galley shipbuilder Franchesko DePonty, invited to Russia in the beginning
of 1720. The Name of the vessel was received after launching on May 16, 1729 (Old style) in
St.-Petersburg in the galley shipyard. The dementions of "Dvina" are not specified in any documents, and
The drawings were not kept. By the measurements of a model, the galley had the greatest length 48,46 ì and
the greatest width 9,6 m. Artillery arms consisted of one 24-pounds gun,
two 12-pounds and twelve 3-pounds of basses on boards - tolaly 15 guns.
Oarsmen of the galley were the soldiers of Preobrazhenski and Semenovski regments.Every 5-6 soldiers were rowing one oar, hence, on a vessel there were 250-300 oarsmen The length of an oar was 13,2 ì, the weight-
"Dvina" did not participate In battle actions, but annually during several years it left for
The Finnish gulf for practical sailing.
The model of the galley , made probably in the beginning of the XIX century, is nown in the Central Naval
Museum in St.-Petersburg.
|THE SHIP OF THE LINE "INGERMANLAND" |
The project and the drawings of the 2 decked 64-guned ship of the line "Ingermanland" were developed
by Peter I. The construction was conducted under the direction of the talented shipbuilding master R. Kosenets.On May 1, 1715
(Old style) the ship was launched. The name was given to it under the Swedish name of Izhorskaya
Land - Ingermanland. It was one of the best ships of the time. Its length was 46 ì,the width-
12,8 ì, the average daught 5,5 m. It had the advanced sailing arms, the sails of the third circle - bramsails appeared on its high
fore- and main-masts for the first time in home practice.
The ship differed by good seaworthy qualities and had powerful, on those times, artillery
equipment. On the bottom deck there were twenty four 30-pounds guns, on the top
(upper deck the same number of 16-pounds guns on the aftercastle - fourteen 14-pounds ones, on a tank (forecastle)
- Two 2-pounds guns. For a number of years "Ingermanland" remained the flagship of the Baltic
Fleet. Participating in campaigns of 1715, 1718, 1719 and 1721 years,it went under the flag of the vice-admiral
Peter Mikhailov (Peter I), and in campaign of 1716 - under the standard of the tsar who was a commander
Of the joined Anglo-Holland-Dutch-Russan fleet in the war with Sweden. " Ingermanland " was a favourite
creature of Peter I. The Tsar ordered " to keep the ship for memory ", however in 1735,during the
eternal anchorage in the Kronstadt harbour, "Ingermanland" foundered during the strong flood.
|THE PACKETBOAT "ST. PETER" |
By the end of a summer of 1740(years) in Okhotsk under the direction of the ship master Kosmin and Rogachev
Two packetboats - " St. Peter " and " St. Pavel ", were constructed they were intended for researches
in the Northern part of the Pacific ocean on the program Great Northern or The Second Kamchatka expeditions.
They were 14-guns one-decked two-masted vessels with the brig sailing arms and good
seaworthy qualities. The Length of the packetboat was 24,4 ì, the width - 6,7 ì, the daught - 2,9 ì, the displacement - more
than 200 ò, the crew - 75 men.
In the beginning of September the vessel set off to navigation. On the flagship packetboat " St. Peter " there was
The chief of expedition the commander V. Bering. " St. Pavel " was commanded by the skilled seaman lieuntenant À.
Chirkov. In October the expedition arrived in Avachinskaya bay and stopped to pass through winter in a bay,
Which Bering in honour of the packetboats named Petropavlovskaya. Later the city
founded there was named Petropavlovsk.
In June, 1741 the vessels went to the southeast to search for the coast of America. During the storm they
lost each other and further sailed separately. A. Chirkov became the discovere of the
Northwest coast of America and Aleutian islands. In October his packetboat safely
returned to Avachinskayay bay. " St. Peter " on a return way to Kamchatka approached to an unknown island
( Nowadays the Bering island ). There on December 8, 1714 (Old style) V. Bering died.
When approaching to an island the packetboat received the large damages and was broken up. From its parts the crew
constructed a small vessel, on which in the summer of 1742 reached Kamchatka.
|THE SHIP OF THE LINE "EVSTAPHI" |
The ship was constructed in 1762 IN THE shipyard of the Main Admiralty in St.-Petersburg
By the ship master Ulf. Its length was 47,5 ì,the width - 14,5 ì, the draught 5,8 ì, the arms
consisted of sixty six 36- and 18-pounds guns.
In the middle of July, 1769 the Russian squadron under
the command of the admiral G.A. Spiridonov(1 Archipelago expedition) left Kronstadt for the Mediterranean sea. The admiral held the flag
On "Evstaphi".On June 24, 1770 (Old style) in Khiosski strait(in
the Egeiskoe sea) the squadron found out the main forces of the turkish fleet and, straight off, in a wake column from a short distance
( 50-70 ì) attacked its avant guarde and the part of the centre. "Evstaphi" appeared in the most hot fire.
During the fight the fire began on the flagship of the turkish ship "Real-Mustapha", and
its burning main-mast fell on the Russian flagship. When. G.A. Spiridonov was convinced that it was impossible to rescue
" Evstaphi ", he transferred the flag on the ship of the line" Three Priests ". Soon
"Evstaphi" blew up, and after it " Real-Mustapha " flied up in air . The Explosion of both ships and
the storm fire of the Russian ship artillery caused panic on the ships of the anemy. They hasty, in
disorder receded to Chesmenskaya bay, where They were blocked by the Russian squadron. On the militarian
Council of June 25 (Old style) by the commander -in-chief of the Russian sea and the land forces in
Archipelago (in the sea Ionicheskoe) the count A.G.Orlov the plan of G.A. Spiridonov on the destruction of the turkish ships by the combined impact of the ship artillery and fireships was accepted.
| THE SHIP OF THE LINE " THREE HIERARCHS " |
The ship of the line " Three Hierarchs " was constructed in 1766 in St.-Petersburg in the shipyard of the Main
Admiralty under the project of the skilled ship engineer Lambe Yabes and was named in honour
of the bishops-divine servicer of the first centuries of the epoch of christianity Vasili the Great, Grigory Divine Servicer, Joann
Zlatoust. The Length of a vessel was 47,4 ì, the width - 12,5 ì, the draught - 5,5 m. The arms included
Sixty six guns. The perfect forms of a null of the ship were harmoniously combined with a beautiful
decoration. the figure of a bow of the ship represented the warrior in the Roman clothes. The fore stern was decorated with the composition of
The four figures of nymphs and caryatids, connected among themselves by volutes of intricate ornament. All
Graceful high relief was gilt and looked well on a background of a light-blue lattice of a balcony.
During the Russian-Turkish war of 1768-1774 years the ship, included in the squadron of the admiral A.
Spiridonov participated in Hoists, and then in Chesmen sea battles of June 24-26, 1770
( Old style). Under the command of the captain of the team-leader rank S.K.Grag, it fearlessly
Battled in a very close distance from the enemy and made it a significant loss, though itself also
received serious damages. (the flag of the ship was held by the commander -in-chief
of the Russian sea and overland forces in Archipelago the general - in-chief the count .A. G. Orlov, who received for
Unprecedented victory in Chesmen fighting a title of Chesmen's. S. K. Grag was given the grade of
|THE FIRESHIP OF ILYIN |
In epoch of sailing fleet to burn the enemy ships there were used the fireships,
Loaded by combustible and explosive substances. Out-of-date ships were used as fireships, as a rule,
. They were directed to the enemy with the fare wind or with a stream, more often at night or in the
fog. The fireships were equipped so that they could quickly blow up and in a collision with an enemy
ship could set it on fire . The example of a successful use of the fireship serves the example of burning
the Turkish fleet in Chesmen sea battle at night 25 on June 26, 1770
( Old style) by the Russian seamen. Despite of the strong fire of the enemy,
he managed to approach to the 84-gun Turkish ships of line closely, to burn the fireship and together
With a team to move to the boat. Burning fragments of the blown up ship caused explosions and fires on
Other ships of the enemy. In total 15 Turkish ships of the line, 6 frigates and more
Than 40 fine ships were lost. For this feat the lieutenant D.S.Ilyin was awarded with an award of Gregoriya IV degree.
Later in memory of a heroic act a mine cruiser and Destroyer were named after D.S.Ilyin.
The name "Chesma" was given to the ship of the line of the Russian fleet.
|TRAININ FRIGAT "NADEZDA" |
Soon after the ascendrug the Russian throne Ekaterina II spoke: " We have an excess
of hips and people, but we have neither fleet, nor seamen ". Under the empress initiatives there were accepted urgent
Measures for revival of fleet in the spirit of Peter the Great. One of them was organization of training cadets of the Molotary College
On June 21, 1764 (Old style) the Admiralty - board decided: " For
Training the seacadets and... cadets to keep at the callege a three-mast yacht, which should be constructed and
supplied with all (requirements) ".No Doubts, that the construction of a vessel was held, as there were
the categorical resolution Åêàòåðèíû II: " To be so! "
Three-mast ten-gun ôðåãàò "Nadezda" was layed down in the shipyard of the Main Admiralty in
St.-Petersburg of December 23, 1756 (Old style), it was launched on June 4, 1766 (
Old style). The builder of a frigat was the known ship master Lambe Yames. The Basic
Timensions of a vessel: the length between perpendiculars was 23,77 ì, the width without boards of the planking 6,71 ì, the height of the
Boards - 3,1 ì, the depth of hold 2,82 ì, average daught - 2,34ì, displacement - 270 ò, the area of the main
Sails 445 square meters. The crew consisted of 28 men, from them there were 17 sailors. Ôðåãàò accepted
25 cadets aboard. It sailed in the area of the Finnish gulf. However because of unsufficient seasoning of the
Building wood the life of a vessel was short - in 1774 the ship " was broken up on decay ". In
History of the Russian fleet the frigate "Nadezda" for ever remained as the first home vessel
of Special construction.
|THE BOMBARDING SHIP|
The sailing two - 3 decked ships of the end of XVII - beginning XIX century were armed
By guns of large gauge (ballasting mortars), and also with small guns for self-defence. It
was intended for bombardment of coastal fortifications and seaside fortresses, and also for
Artillery fight with the ships of the enemy. The special attention in the construction of bombarding ships was paid to there capability of shooting with heavy and long-range mortars that would not influence on their durability and would not make a ship shaky, that
Loosened the ship fastenings.
The First bombarding ships appeared in the French fleet in 1681. Originally they had
The name bombarding galliots. Soon this class of ships was accepted in all sea states.
In the Russian fleet the first bombarding ships appeared in 1699 for the actions against a fortress
In 1771 in St.-Petersburg under the direction of the ship master A. Selyaninov the three-masted bombarding ship "Jove". was constructed
There were square sails On the fore- and the main-masts, on the
mizzen-mast - the gaff. There were established: two 5-pounds mortars, two 3-pounds howitzers
And ten 6-pounds guns. Depending on the arms the dimensions of these ships were the following:
the Length - 20-29 ì, the width - 6-8 ì, the draught 2,5-3,5 m. The crew consisted of 40-50 men. In
home fleet bombarding ships existed till 1828.
|THE SHIP OF THE LINE "THE GLORY OF EKATERINA" |
The general - zeuqmeister the commander of artillery of the Black Sea fleet I. A. Gannibal on May 26 1779
Year (Old style) laid in the Kherson shipyard the two first 66-guns ships of the line.
The head of them became " The Glory of Ekaterina ". Presumably the project of the new ship of the line was designed by the ship master Katasonov. It was built by the engineer Afanasyev.
The length of a vessel at the bottom deck was 48,77 ì, the width without the planking - 13,5 ì, the depth of hold - 5,8 m. Instead of the
Required 30-pounds guns they let it possible to do with available
24-pounds ones, which " so small difference had, that could be operated with the same use".
The Construction of the ship went slowly, only on September 16, 1783 in
In the solemn conditions the vessel was launched. The Military service of "The Glory of Ekaterina " was during the
Russian-Turkish war of 1787-1791 years. Renamed in 1788 by the general - field marshal
Potemkin in " The God's Transformation " the ship participated in all large operations of Russian
Squadrons, including the victory sea battles under the command of the admiral F. F. Ushakov.
Deserved glory gained in severe sea battles, puts this ship in one line, with
The other ships - heroes of the home fleet.
|THE SHIP OF THE LINE "ST. PAUL" |
The 2 decked 84-guns ship of the line " St. Paul " was constructed in the city Nikolaev in 1794
by the ship engineer I. Afanasiyev and I. Sokolov. As for design it much
Differed from the ships of the line of earlier construction. A tank and a forecastle were made without former
Heights also had a common deck. Under the bowsprit, on the bow past of the vessel There was established
The figure of the apostle Paul, made from a tree and covered by gilding . The stern didn't have
magnificent ornaments, which were so fashionable in epoch of the style rococo. Above the windows of the upper gallery
There was a gilt convex State Emblem: two headed Igle in a frame of banners.
The ship had more perfect sailing arms. On the bow part of the ship there was the Kluver and the staysails which were put between
The masts. The Length of the ship was 54,9 ì, the width - 15,3 ì, the depth of the hold - 6,1 m. On the bottom deck there were established
Twenty four copper 36-pounds guns, on the top (upper - deck) - there were twenty six
24-pounds guns. On the both decks, besides there were ten one-horn guns. On the after-castle, tank and an quarter-deck -
Twenty four pig-iron 6-pounds guns.
The ship " St. Paul " came in a history of the Russian naval fleet. For a long time was
a flagship of an outstanding sailor F. F. Ushakov. On February 20, 1799 Old style) on That ship
there was signed a certificate(act) about capitulation of the French garnison of an "unapproachable" fortress in
The Mediteranean sea - Korfu.
|THE SLOOP "EAST" |
The vessel was launched from the building ways of Okhotinskaya shipyard in St.-Petersburg in 1818. Its
Length was 40 ì, the width about 10 ì, the draught- 4,8 ì, the displacement 900 ò, the speed up to 10 knots.
The arms consisted of 28 guns. The Crew was 117 men.
On July 3, 1819 (Old style) the sloop "East" commanded by the captain of II rank F. F.
Bellinsgausen, the chief of a round-the-world Antarctic expedition, and the sloop "Peace" under
the command of the lieutenant Lasarev left Kronstadt and by January 16 of the next year
(Old style) reached the coast of Antarctic Continent. After repair in Sydney (Australia) the ships
Investigated a tropical part of the Pacific ocean, and then on October 31, 1820 (Old
style) again headed for Antarctic Continent.
On January 10, 1821 (Old style) the sloops reached the most southern point. On July 24, 1821 (
Old style), after the hardest navigation, the ships arrived in Kronstadt. For 751 days they
passed 49723 miles (about 92300 kms). The major result of the expedition became the opening of the sixth vast
continent - Antarctic Continent. Besides, 29 islands were mapped
Complex oceanographic works were made. In memory of this famous navigation in Russia there was embossed
In 1828 the sloop "East" was excluded from the lists of the fleet and broken up. Presently the names of the sloops
"East" and "Peace" are carried by two Soviet scientific Antarctic stations. On established
Tradition the name "East" passed to the largest research vessel.
|THE SHIP of THE LINER "AZOV" |
The ship was laid down in Arkhangelsk on October 20, 1825 (Old style), and launched on 26
May, 1826 (Old style). It was built by the famous Russian ship master I. A.
Kurochkin and V. A. Ershov. It's name the ship received in memory of a victory of Peter I over the Turkish in 1696
year. "Azov" was a sample of shipbuilding, one of the most beautiful ships of the Russian fleet. It's
straight hull of 54,5 ì length and 14,7 ì width was ornamented with the classical wood-carving.
The Centre of the taffrail was decorated by the two headed igle the bow figure of the ship of about 3,5 ì height represented the warrior in
Gilded helmet and armour . The Displacement of a vessel was 3000 ò, the crew -600 men. The fighting equipment
consisted of four 40-pounds and seventy 24- and 36-pounds guns. On October 8, 1827 (Old style)
In Navarre sea battle the flag on this ship was held by the commander of the Russian squadron
rear-admiral L. P. Geiden. the ship was commanded by the captain of I rank M. P. Lasarev, one of
the discoverers of Antarctic Continent, subsequently admiral, the known fleet leader. Thanking heroism,
the high military training of crew and the art of the commander "Azov " with the gun fire destroyed five Turkish
ships, for what it was the first of the ships of the Russian fleet which was awarded with the honourable Georgian flag and
the pendant. However serious damages received in Navarre sea battle, did not allow
it to continue a further service, in 1831 the ship was broken up. In the Soviet Naval Fleet the famous name of this ship inherited a large untisubmarine ship "Azov".
|THE BRIG "MERCURY" |
The vessel was constructed in Sevastopol in 1820 by the outstanding engineer shipbuilder I.I. Osminin.
The Length of the brig was 29,4 ì, the width -9,4 ì, the draught - 2,9 m. On a deck there were eighteen 24-pounds
guns with a short trunk for fighting at the close distance. Two guns of smaller
gauge when needed were moved from the stern to the bow part
The bow of the ship was decorated with a figure of Mercury, the God of trade, the patron
During the Russian-Turkish war the brig commanded by the captain - lieuntenant A.I. Kasarskiy made
The unprecedented feat and his name forever entered in a history of the home fleet. Making reconnaissance
Near Bosphor, On May 14, 1829 (Old style) it entered in the battle with
The pursuing it two Turkish ships of the line, on which there were totally 184 guns.
sailing with maneuver, and using oars to increase the speed, making the neat fire, the brig
managed to make significant damages in masts and spars and rigging to the ships of the enemy, and compelled them to lie to
drift and to refuse the pursuit. For this feat "Mercury" was awarded with the Stern
Georgiy Fleet and a pendant, and all the crew received the battle awards. In memory of the feat of
"Mercury" in Sevastopol in 1834 there was erected a monument with an inscription: " TO A.I. kASARSKIY. To posterity
As an example ". According to the tradition the name of the heroic brig was inherited by the a surveying vessel
of Mercury ", and the sea trawl of our Naval Fleet was named after its commander -
|THE FRIGATE "PALLADA" |
The ship was laid down in Okhotinskay shipyard in St.-Petersburg on November 2, 1831 (Old
style), it was launched on September 1, 1832 ( old style). It was built on the best samples
That time by the Russian ship master the colonel V. F. Stoke. In design of the hull and in
Sailing equipment the latest innovations were taken into account, and the furnish was made from valuable
rare types of the trees - teak and oak. The ship differed by the underlined severity of lines, the grace
of decorations and good seaworthy qualities. The speed of frigate exceeded 12 knots. The Length of a vessel
was 52,8 ì, the width -13,6 m. The arms consisted of fifty two guns of 24- and 32-pounds of gauge.
The frigate was named in honour of the Greek goddess of war and victory, and also wisdom, knowledge, art and
Crafts. The first commander of "Pallada" became the captain - lieutenant P. S. Nakhimov. In October, 1852
The ship commanded by the captain - lieutenant I. S. Unkovski left Kronstadt for round-the-world
Navigation. The expedition was headed by the vice-admiral Å. V. Putyanin, sent to the Far East with the
diplomatic mission. As his secretary on frigate there was a known Russian writer
I. A. Goncharov, who subsequently created the literary work of the same name, which made a name of the ship immortal. On 17
January, 1856 (Old style) fearing, that frigate "Pallada" could be seized
By the Anglo-French squadron, the ship was sunk in Konstantinovskaya (nowadays Postovaya) bay
Of Imperial (nowadays Soviet) harbour. Presently on a coast of a bay Postovaya the monument to frigate is established.
|THE SHIP OF THE LINE "TWELVE APOSTELS" |
In first half of XIX century in the building ways of the shipyard Nikolaev there was built 120-gun 3 decked
The same ship of the line " Twelve Apostles ", "Paris" and " Great Prince
Konstantin". They were built by the outstanding Russian shipbuilder the captain S. I. Chernyakovskiy. In designing
of The head ship the main commander of the Black Sea fleet the admiral M.P.Lasarev participated.
The ship " Twelve Apostles " was launched on July 15, 1841 (Old style). The length
of the Vessel was 63,7 ì, the width 18 m. On its bottom deck there were 28 powerful 68-pounds bombing
guns with range of shooting of flat
Trajectory of 14 cable's length (about 2600 ì), designed by the Russian artillerist-inventor Lekhner. On the other two artillery decks
There were 36- and 24-pounds guns. In total there were 130 guns. The crew of the ship consisted of about 1000 men, among them there were 12
officers and 65 corporals. The name "120-gun" did not specify the amount of the guns, and
Meant that the ship refered to I rank. Strong artillery arms, perfect
Seaworthy qualities, maneuverability, high speed (at a fair wind up to 12 knots)
Put the ships of this series in a number of the best ships of the line of the sailing period.
During the defence of Sevastopol the ship of the line " Twelve Apostles " together with other ships of
The Black Sea fleet was sunk at an entrance to the Northern bay.
|THE SHIP OF THE LINE " IMPRESS MARIYA" |
2 decked the ship of the line " Empress Mariya " was launched on May 9, 1853 (Old
style) from the shipbuilding ways of Nikolaev shipyard .The colonel Dmitriev built it. The Length of a vessel was 61 ì,
the Width -17,4 m. On two artillery decks there were 84 guns: eight bombing
34-pounds guns, fifty six 36-pounds and twenty 24-pounds. Ones. The crew consisted of 733 men.
The captain of the I rank P.I. Baranovskiy was the commander of the ship.
On November 18, 1853 (Old style) the Russian squadron within the six ships of the line
Commanded by the vice-admiral. A.S. Nakhimov (he held the flag on " Empress Maria ") came in
Sinopskaya bay, where under the protection of coastal batteries there was a Turkish squadron. Having occupied four favourable positions under the fire of
The enemy and having used the superiority of artillery, squadron the Black Sea
Fleet completely destroyed 15 of 16 enemy ships and coastal batteries. Osman-pasha commanded
the Turkish squadron was taken in captivity. The ship " Empress Maria " in that first battle received serious
Damages. Estimating the Sinopskaya victory, the vice-admiral V. A. Kornilov wrote: " the battle is famous, more famous than
those at Chesma and Navarin ". This battle was included in a history as the last large battle of the epoch of the sailing
Fleet. The effective use of Russian bombing guns in it sped up transition to the construction
Of the armoured fleet.
On August 28, 1855 (Old style) " Empress Maria " among other ships
of The Black Sea Fleet was sunk on the Sevastopol road stead in order not to allow
The enemy to pass to the city.