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|THE HISTORY of CREATION of the SAILING SHIPS|
In the development of the world shipbuilding, no less than in the navigation the outstanding role played
Our Ancestors east slavs, anciently settling on the coasts of the large rivers. Most ancient means for
Overcoming the water spaces for the slavs served a boat (castle). The centre
Of the ancient Russian Shipbuilding was Kiev, and in the beginning of the XII century becomes Novgorod. The vessels of people of Novgorod were more
perfect, than the vessels of people of Kiev, they had special rooms for crews "attics" and
Were richly decorated with a carving. Aspiration to development of new lands, inherent enterprise and trade
Activity made Novgorod people come to the coast of the White sea. Pomory (so the settlers named themselves)
built the vessels in account of navigation in ice conditions. Ancient Russian boat was
improved and turned to a sea three-masted decked sailing vessel.
The most ancient vessels of Pomora people were courts which, played a significant role in geographical
Researches of XVI - XVII centuries: Pomora people passed all Northern sea ways from a mouth of
Pechora up to the Okhotskoye sea by them. The First Russian sea vessel of a foreign design which received
The Name "Frederick", was constructed in 1634 in Nizhni Novgorod and was intended for the
Trade with Persia. For protection of Russian trade interests in the Caspian sea in 1669 in the
Shipyards in a village Dedinovo the first Russian military sailing ship "Orel"(the eagle) was constructed. Further
The development of the home fleet was closely connected with the name of Peter I.
In the end of XVII century the Azov fleet was formed. Basically it consisted of the galleys and the sailing-rowing
artillery ships. The Beginning of the Russian regular naval fleet refers to
October 20, 1696 (Old style), when the Duma under the insisting of Peter I issued
The Verdict (decree), in which decided: " The Sea vessels are to be built ". For 30 years (1696-1725) the Russian regular
fleet was formed. 111 ships of the line, 38 frigates, 60 brigs,
67 galleys, the significant number of scampaways (semigalleys), the bombarding ships, up to 300
small vessels in total were constructed.
As for the battle and seaworthy qualities the Russian ships of the line, construction of which began
Since 1708, did not concede the foreign ones, and the galleys successfully acted in skerry areas of the Baltic
sea against the Swedish ships.
The furniture of the ships of the Russian regular fleet was stricter, more modest, than the furniture of
Western countries vessels. The fore-castle statues represented basically christian sacred - the patrons of the seamen,
And also the mythological gods, heroes, less often - animals and birds. As a rule, the fore-castle decoration
Was connected with the name of the ship.
On the ships of the line and frigates the stern, the lateral galleries, the top belt(zone) of boards were decorated also.
The galleys and small vessels had quite certain
form of decoration: in the centre of the stern the coat of arms was located which was supported by figures
of the mythological heroes, the name of a vessel was lower -. The boards were painted in yellow, green or dark blue
colour - there was not any strict regulation on this account. Only from the end of XVIII century
The Uniform colouring of the military ships was accepted. Their boards, painted outside with a black paint with wide
White strips along the lines of the gun ports, remained black (from the inside - red).
Thus, the number of black squares on the white strips of boards spoke about the quantity of guns in
The closed batteries of the ship. In 70 years of XVIII century the copper plating of the bottom
Of the ships was used. Due to this the speed of a vessel increased. In the beginning of XIX century
Masts and spars and rigging were modernized, the new design of sails was introduced, wooden sloop-heads were replaced with iron, ones instead of
The Additional sails - stay-sails on the main- and fore-masts were put the try-sails of the much greater
areas, there were used stronger frames and diagonal fastenings of a frame. All this allowed
To build larger vessels with strong artillery arms.
In furniture of the ships the style baroque was replaced with classical, the golden age of which in home
Shipbuilding was during the 1825-1835 years. The ships, constructed in that time, had the underlined
Strict shape. The black-and-white colouring of boards was in harmony with the refined simplicity of not numerous
Details of carved decoration. The caring was gilded or covered with ochre. The Sharp bow part, the integral
Line of boards, the low stern superstructure and the significant sizes - were those differences of the new
Built vessels from their predecessors.
However in 30 years of XIX century the European sea states and the USA began to build
Ships having steam machines as engines and simultaneously the sails, the
Middle of the century is characterised by the golden age of the sailing fleet all over the world. The ship builders of that time created
Really unsurpassed even for this day sailing ships. The XIX century was really marked
By the magnificent victory of the Russian Black Sea fleet. In the sea battle a squadron of the ships of
The vice-admiral P. S. Nakhimov destroyed the Turkish fleet laying on anchors in Sinopskaya bay. And
Nevertheless this battle became " a swan song " of the old sailing fleet centuries. It Began the transition from
Sailing wooden fleet to the steam armoured fleet.