History of Gardening: A Timeline
of Beauty. William Hogarth.
Public Gardens, London.
from China begin arriving in Europe.
Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful.
and Food - History - 18th Century Net Links. By Rick Brainard.
Botanic Gardens, Kew The mother of King George III,
Augusta, helps establish Kew Gardens on part of her estate.
Hale (1677 - 1761). Botanist who studied the movement
of sap in plants.
ou La Nouvelle Heloise. Jean Jacques Rousseau.
on the Feeling of the Beautiful and the Sublime.
Bartram, American plantsman from Pennsylvania, appointed "Botanist
to the King." Mr. Bartram introduced many native plants found in
America into cultivation.
Garden in China.
(1765-1767) experiments with sterilization.
on Design in Gardening. W. Mason.
His Own Gardener. Thomas Mawe and John Abercrombie.
views towards science and reason begin to influence gardeners.
on Modern Gardening. Thomas Whately.
Botanical Gardens directed by Joseph Banks.
Clayton (1685-1773) English botanist.
Bartram begins plant collecting in eight southern U.S. colonies.
Americanum, the American Grove, or an Alphabetical Catalogue of Forest
Trees Native of the American United States.
By John Bartram.
Gardening - Pennsylvania
Bartram (1699-1777) American plant collector, farmer, and
plant hybridizer. Bartram
Carolus Linnaeus [Carl von Linne] (1707-1778)
Swedish botanist, educator, and inventor of the modern system of botanical
classification and nomenclature. Information about Linnaeus:
Museusm of Natural History, Linne
Online. The many students and colleagues of Linnaeus provided
a world-wide network of botanists exchanging scientific information and
History of the Modern Taste in Gardening. Horace
From an American Farmer. Michel-Guillaume St.
Jean de Crevecoeur (1735-1813).
Naturelle. Georges-Louis Leclerc.
'Capability' Brown (1716-1783) Renowned English garden designer and
la Composition des Paysages. Girardin.
garden at Calcutta, India, established. Kew RBG associate.
sold in paper packets by Shakers in New England.
Leclerc, Comte de Buffon
(1707-1788). French natural scientist.
Epoques de la Nature. Georges-Louis Leclerc. Revised
timescales for history of the earth.
People's Park in Munich, Germany, designed by Ludwig von Skell.
Paxton's work on botanical gardens in England.
in the New World
Through North and South Carolina. William Bartram.
on Forest Scenery and Other Woodland Views.
of Langollen garden, Plas Newydd, England, by Eleanor Butler and Sarah
Farmer's Almanac first published by Robert B. Thomas.
patented the first cotton ginning machine.
on the Picturesque. Price.
or, The Laws of Organic Life. Erasmus Darwin.
on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening.
Appert, a Frenchman, developed techniques for preserving foods by canning.
Newbold, a blacksmith in Burlington, N.J., introduced the cast-iron moldboard
British Garden. Charlotte Murray.
Collection of Roses from Nature. Mary Lawrance.
Washington (1732-1799). President, soldier, farmer (Mt. Vernon),
and plant collector.
1800, approximately 75% of the population [America] were directly
engaged in agricultural production. By 1850, it was less than 60%
and by 1900, less than 40% were engaged in agricultural production."
Chapman, Johnny Appleseed, begins planting apple trees in the Ohio Valley.
(1731-1802). English physician and natural scientist.
von Humboldt shows the merits of South American bird guano for plants.
German pharmacist, Friedrich Saturner, names morphine after the Greek god
of dreams, Morpheus.
Josephine Bonaparte's rose garden is shown in prints by Pierre-Joseph Redoute.
Horticultural Society in England is established.
Priestly (1733 - 1804). Studied gases released by plants.
José Dionisio Larreátegui.
of Empress Josephine Bonaparte's gardens at Malmaison in France have over
2,000 species of plants. Her
head gardener was Aime Bonpland.
American Gardener's Calendar. Bernard McMahon.
Inquiry into the Changes of Taste in Landscape Gardening.
Gardens in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil, (Kew Garden Associate) established.
Man His Own Gardener. Thomas Mawe and John Abercrombie.
19th Edition, 1st Ed. 1769.
theories about evolution are published.
Essays on the Picturesque. Uvedal Price.
Peter Durand, invents the tin can for preserving foods.
St. John de Crevecoeur (1735-1813). French writer and farmer
Florist's Manual. Maria Jackson.
Repton (1752-1818). English garden designer.
Nuttall. Genera of North American Plants.
farm life in the Ozarks.
Jardins. Poem by Abbe De Lille.
Banks (1743-1820) Plant collector, botanist, explorer of Australia,
President of the Royal Horticultural Society for 40 years, wealthy landowner.
Brought 3,500 different species of plants to the Kew RBG.
about tomatoes being harmful to humans are repudiated by agricultural experts.
American Gardener. William Cobett. Nurseryman
and plant collector.
Encyclopedia of Gardening. John C. Loudon.
of the Industrial Revolution on Agriculture.
Magazine (1826-1843) Published by John
Jefferson (1783-1826). American President, writer, farmer (Monticello),
his Monticello home and gardens.
What was a day
with Jefferson like at Monticello. On-line
Stein invents and patents methods of distillation for production of liquors,
spirits, and liqueurs.
English Gardener. William Cobbett.
History of English Gardening. George Johnson.
to break up bones for fertilizer are invented.
Metropolitan Cemetery in Liverpool, England. Start of
garden cemetery movement.
horticulture developed by Nathaniel B. Ward (1791-1868) - the Wardian case.
Rides. William Cobbett.
Deere develops and produces the first steel plowshare.
mower invented in England by Edwin Beard butting.
Gardens, Ontario, B.C.
Lady Her Own Flower Garden. Louisa Johnson.
Hooker (1779-1832). Botanical illustrator and artist.
Hints for Landscape Gardeners. William Sawrey Gilpin
Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832). Penetrating
Douglas (1799-1834). English plant
- collected in western America.
Rose Fancier's Manual. Catherine Gore.
Suburban Gardener and Villa Companion. By John C.
Trees and Shrubs of Britain, Native and Foreign (Arboretum Et Fruticetum
By John C. Loudon. 8 Volumes.
Voyage of the Beagle. Charles Darwin.
for Ladies. Jane Loudon.
Arboretum, a Public Park, designed by John Loudon.
import bat guano fertilizer from South America.
Botanical Gardens transferred from Crow to British government.
William J. Hooker appointed director of
Kew NBG. 250 acres. Opened to public on weekends.
chemistry research by the German chemist Julius von Liebig.
Minerals, humus, manure, and fertilizer are essential to
plant growth. Law of the minimum formulated.
Chronicle - Published by Joseph Paxton.
Ladies Companion to the Flower Garden. Mane Loudon.
Gardening: A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening.
Andrew J. Downing.
Park, London, a public park, designed by James Pennethorne.
New York, hosts the first state agricultural fair in America.
Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis (1824-1873). Augustin
de Candolle (1775-1841) worked on the
from 1816 until his death in 1841, then his son, Alphonse (1806-1893).
Residences. Andrew J. Downing.
B. Lawes opens Deptford factory in England making fertilizer from bones
and sulfuric acid.
Southern Farmer and Market-Gardener.
Francis S. Holmes.
Claudius Loudon (1783-1843). English gardener and writer.
Park, Wirral, Merseyside, a people's park, designed by Joseph Paxton.
Experimental Station, England, developed by Sir John Lawes and Sir Henry
Rothamsted is the oldest
agricultural experiment station in the world.
Loudon's flower paintings.
Fruits and Fruit Trees of America. Andrew J. Downing
and Charles Downing.
Horticulturist - A magazine published by Andrew J.
Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Gardening Adapted to North America.
Andrew J. Downing.
park, Manchester England, designed by Joshua Major.
Cottage Gardens of American. Walter Elder.
Practical Treatise on the Management of Fruit Trees.
issued on chemical fertilizers: guano and sulfate of ammonia.
to Lay Out a Small Garden. Joseph Paxton.
Canadian Gardens: A History of Gardening In Canada.
Presented by the National Library of Canada.
Interesting facts about Huron agriculture, Canadian flora, pioneer gardens,
and 19th Century seed catalogs. Includes a bibliography, links, and
of railroad systems around the world from 1850-1890 greatly expanded the
marketing options for agriculture.
Palace in Hyde Park constructed. Designed by Joseph Paxton.
James Audubon (1785-1851) American ornithologist and
Hooker brings 6,5000 species of plants from India to Kew NBG.
Jackson Downing (1815-1852). American landscape architect
and horticulturist. Editor of
Grape Growers Guide. William Chorlton.
sent from China to Indian Himalayas by Robert Fortune.
A great selection of teas and teaware; and good information about tea.
Talks of an American Farmer in England. Federick L. Olmsted.
Wales Bull develops first stock of Concord grapes.
Farmer's Guide to Scientific and Practical Agriculture.
Henry Stephens. Full-text
Veitch's nurseries in Chelsea and Exeter are very successful.
By Henry David Thoreau.
American Gardener. William Cobbett. Full-text
Old Homestead. Anna S. Stephens.
Cities negative influence on rural areas.
Way discovers that nitrates are formed in soils by fertilizers containing
of Fruit Culture. Thomas Gregg.
Pasteur (1822-1895) announces theory that bacteria and germs cause infectious
Elizabeth Washington Wirt (1784-1857) Flora's
Loudon (1807-1858). Writer, artist, gardener; wife and collaborator
with John Loudon.
Park in New York City is designed by Frederick
Law Olmstead and Calvert Vaux.
the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection.
and Pleasant Talk about Fruits, Flowers and Farming.
Henry Ward Beecher. Full-text
Fruit Book. F. R. Elliott.
system is very popular: geometrical flower beds with colorful annuals,
e.g., 40,000 bedding plants set out in
Hyde Park, London, in 1859.
Kent, England designed by Philip Webb (1831-1915) and commissioned by William
Morris was the first Arts
and Crafts house and garden.
Hilgard's studies in ecology and soils.
Wheat Plant. John H. Klippart.
trees (for quinine) sent from Kew NBG to India.
David Thoreau (1817-1862) American naturalist and essayist.
States Department of Agriculture established. Called the "People's
Department" by President Lincoln.
Act and Morrill Land Grand College Act signed by President Lincoln.
on Man's Place in Nature. Thomas H. Huxley.
Culture Manual. Gordon F. Ferris.
insects destroy 2.5 million acres of French vines.
Paxton (1803-1865) English architect, engineer, gardener, town planner.
Vegetable Gardening: A Master Gardenerís Guide to Planting, Seed
Saving, and Cultural History.
William Woys Weaver.
Jackson Hooker ( - 1865) Botanist, Director of Kew NBG.
Johann Mendel publishes
findings about genetic experiments with pea plants.
in Java start production of guinine from chinchona trees smuggled out of
American Gardener's Assistant. Thomas Bridgeman.
Life: A Handbook of Agriculture, Horticulture, & Landscape
Gardening. Robert Morris Copeland.
of the Royal Horticultural Society (1866-1975) -
Corn: Its Value, Culture and Uses.
Small Fruit Culturist. Andrew S. Fuller.
a planned community outside Chicago, designed by F. L. Olmsted.
Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication.
American Woman's Home. Harriet Beecher Stowe and Catherine
Crops Grow. Samuel W. Johnson.
- Weekly science journal published in London.
Flowers for English Gardens. William Robinson.
Art of Beautifying Suburban Home Grounds of Small Extent.
of the Sulphur Cure. William J. Flagg.
Wild Garden. William Robinson.
Floral Beauty Into Your Home. Excellent
Descent of Man. Charles Darwin.
Garden -. Magazine published by William Robinson.
Summer in the Garden. Charles Dudley Warner.
Gardening and Seed Growing. F. Brill.
By Myself. Anna Bartlett Waner (1824-1915)
Model Potato. By John McLaurin.
growing in South Carolina
Breck (1794-1873) American nurseryman
by Othmar Zeidler. Its insecticidal properties were not exploited
until the 20th Century.
Trail. By Frances Parkman Jr..
and manufacture of barbed wire fencing.
(1803-1873). Studied the chemistry of plant nutrition.
Torrey. (1796-1873). American botanist and teacher.
Wickham brings rubber tree seeds from Brazil to England, the plants later
being sent to Sri Lanka.
state agricultural station established in Connecticut at Wesleyan University.
Effects of Cross and Self Fertilization in the Vegetable Kingdom.
seeds smuggled out of Brazil to Kew NBG.
Peter of Switzerland added dried milk to chocolate and produced "milk chocolate."
Burpee starts a popular seed company in America.
and Poets. John Burroughs.
and Grape Vines of California. Hannah
Parks and Gardens of London. Nathan Cole.
and Handbook of Orange Culture in Florida.
T. W. Moore.
Koch's (1843-1910) work in the science of bacteriology is very influential.
Illustrated - A magazine published by William
diet of the Crimean
McDowell (1795-1879). Pomologist in Southern U.S.. Developed
thermal belt concept. Biography.
Power of Movement in Plants. Charles Darwin
and F. Darwin.
Fortune (1812-1880), a Scottish plant collector, introduced over 120
new plants to the West.
Waldo Emerson (1803-1882) American poet, essayist, and philosopher.
Robert Darwin (1809-1882) English naturalist, writer, and theorist.
After Darwin's adventures on the Beagle, he married, raised a large family,
and lived in a more rural area outside London. "From 1842 he
lived at Down House, Downe, Kent, a country gentleman among his gardens,
conservatories, pigeons, and fowls. The practical knowledge he gained there,
especially in variation and interbreeding, proved invaluable. Private means
enabled him to devote himself to science, in spite of continuous ill-health"
For more information on Charles Darwin: The
C. Warren Irvin, Jr., Collection of Charles Darwin and Darwinian,
Origin of the Species, The
Descent of Man, The
Voyage of the Beagle, Photo,
English Flower Garden. William Robinson.
North's flower and plant paintings are collected and reproduced.
Farming in the South. A. Oemler.
wire fencing manufactured.
des Plantes Cultivees. By the Swiss botanist Alphonse de Candolle.
Gardening - Magazine.
First editor: James Shirley Hibberd.
fungal treatment for grapes, Bordeaux, developed by Pierre Marie Alexis
Apples. A. F. Barron.
Garden: Its Art and History. Jacob von Falk.
of Tree Planting. Nathaniel H. Egleston.
Johann Mendel (1822-1884) Austrian botanist who studied plant breeding
Fields. John Burroughs.
Manor, West Hoathly, Sussex, purchased and gardens developed by William
Marigold Garden. By Kate Greenway. Popular children's book.
Origin of Cultivated Plants. A. Candolle.
- American Association for the Advancement
of Science. Monthly journal.
Dickinson (1830-1886) American poet
Old Garden. Margaret Deland (1857-1945)
Practical Fruit Grower. Samuel T. Maynard.
Fruits. William H. Hills.
in water filtration with sand at the Lawrence Experiment Station in Massachusetts.
Life and Letters of Charles Darwin. 2 Volumes.
Pflanzen. Hermann A. Köhler. Full-text
tomato introduced by Johnson and Stokes.
and Forest: Journal of Horticulture, Landscape Art, and Forestry
Culture and Wine Making in California. George Husmann.
Olive: Its Culture in Theory and Practice. A. T.
Gray (1810-1888). American botanist.
Gas Engine Company gasoline tractor is manufactured and sold with success.
Garden's Story. George Ellwanger.
Shirley Hibberd (1825-1890) English garden writer
to Make the Garden Pay. T. Greiner.
Raisin Industry. Gustav Eisen.
isolates bacteria responsible for the transformation of ammonia to nitrate.