History of Gardening: A Timeline
Feate of Gardening.
for Designing Mountain, Water, and Hillside Field Landscapes.
Zoen, Japanese landscape architect.
Yoshimasa of Japan made flower
arrangement part of universal education.
Gutenberg began printing with moveable type in Mainz, Germany.
By 1500, the world of ideas would never be the same in Western Europe because
of this single invention.
Gart der Gesundheit. Printed in Mainz.
Sanitatis. Printed in Mainz. Herbal medicine.
Century Life in Europe - Roses
re aedificatoria. Leone Battista Alberti (1404-1472).
Palace in Turkish Constantinople has renowned fruit trees, gardens and
garden of Royanjii, Japan.
Columbus from Spain to the edge of the Americas.
exchanges between Europe and the Americas.
control the spice trade in the Indian Ocean.
from South America introduced in Spain.
garden in Koyoto, Japan. Designed by So-ami. This is a famous
dry garden (Kare-Sanuui).
Court Gardens, England. By Linda Johnson.
use of the term
'herbal' per the Oxford English Dictionary.
Cortes introduces vanilla beans, fava beans, cocoa, sweet potatoes, and
haricot to Spain.
General de Nueva Espana. Bernardino de Sahugun.
Aztec gardening arts reported.
of Babur (1483-1530), Mughal Emperor, in Persia and India.
botanical art, particularly miniatures, is renowned.
between Europe and the Americas.
university chair of botany in Europe, founded in Padua by the Venetian
started caco tree plantations in Venezuela and Trinidad.
Mysticism of Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa of Nettesheim (1487-1535) and
Theophrastus Paracelsus (1493-1541).
first bontanic garden, established in Pisa by botany professor Luca Ghini.
from South America, via Spain, cultivated in Europe.
School "formulated the principles of rikka arrangements by
naming the seven principal branches used in
that type of arrangement."
Medici in Rome.
first museum of natural history in Bologna.
printed almanacs in English become available.
Agricola [George Buaer} (1494-1555) German
geologist, metallurgist, and paleontologist.
Clusius, Dutch botanist, cultivating tulip bulbs imported from Constantinople.
Botanical. Leonhard Fuchs (1501-1566).
Hundred Points of Good Husbandry: A Book of Huswifery.
Fernández de Oviedo y Valdes (1478-1557) Described flora
of New World.
Plantarum. Valerius Cordus.
(1510-1568), "Father of English Botany."
Monardes writing about the botany of the New World based on Spanish accounts.
Profitable Arte of Gardening. Thomas Hill.
d'Este, Little Rome, constructed at Tivoli, Italy. Elaborate
explorers bring potatoes
back to Europe.
Hernandez, private physician to Philip II of Spain, explores the New World
and reports on over 1,000 plants considered of medicinal value. This
research was not published until 1651 as
Rerum Medicarum Novae Hispaniae.
Enchanted Gardens of the Renaissance Facts about three
Renaissance gardens near Rome: Villa D'Este - Tivoli, Villa
Lante - Bagnaia, Bomarzo's Sacred Groves.
Heresbach (1496-1576) The Whole Art and Trade of
Contained in Foure Bookes.
Labyrinth. Thomas Hill (Didymus Mountain).
Lante, Renaissance garden, Bagnaia, Italy.
Pharmacopoeia. Li Shih-Chen (Li Shi-Zhen).
Chinese botanist. Botanical medicine.
Plantis Libri. Andrea Cesalpino. A very important
book in the history of botany. Plants grouped by physical characteristics
(morphology) rather than by medicinal properties.
Drake brings sassafras from America to England. [Rupp 1990]
in the Netherlands.
garden at Bomarzo, Italy.
Soyeki or Rikyu (1522-1591). Japanese tea master, poet, and
A great selection of teas and teaware; and some good information about
French botanic garden in Montpellier. Influenced by Moorish
Bacon prepares lists of common garden plants.
and plant collecting are very popular in England and the Low Countries.
Herbal of Generall Historie of Plants. John Gerard.
take over from the Portuguese in contolling the spice trade in the Indian
forests are becoming depleted, and shortages of wood effect various industries.
In later years, coal, petroleum, hydroelectric and finally nuclear
power sources are increasingly utilized. [Ponting 1991]