History of Gardening: A Timeline
(BCE = Before the Common Era, Christian Era, Roman-Cesar Era)
manuals for the use of herbs in medicine existed in Mesopotamia (now Iraq)
and in China. Herbal remedies were
used by the ancient people.
are cultivated in the Andes mountains of Peru.
Crops of the Incas
in the Nile Valley manufacturing and wearing
tomb paintings show walled gardens with
ponds and fruit trees.
water basin from Tello in Mesopotamia. [Hirst
cultivated in Crete and Syria.
cultivated in China for medicinal purposes.
used over 500 plants, wild and cultivated, for medicinal purposes.
Emperor Shen Nung's plant classification
was an important food in Mohenjo-Daro
near the Arabian Sea, and in the Yangtze Basin in China.
was cultivated and its fibers spun and woven in Peru and the Indus Valley
of Asia. [Baker 1978]
grape vines, pomegranates, and dates in cultivation in Egypt and Asia.
The first garden art was probably decorated grape arbors [Gothein 1928].
Olive trees cultivated in Crete.
Americans are growing many varieties of corn, beans, squash, sunflowers,
as well as using many wild plants as foods.
making paper from the papyrus plant. Watermelon cultivated in Africa,
tea and bananas in India, apples in the
Hammurabic Code. Includes sections on maintaining irrigation
canals and ditches, and property
laws regarding gardens.. Sumerian "Farmer's
of Egypt imports trees from conquered territory in North Africa.
in Ancient Egypt
the oldest surviving garden plans is for the garden of a court official
III, Egyptian King, (1198-1167)
benefactor to many grand temple gardens and public buildings.
begins in in Mexico. [Heiser 1990]
Places: Trees and the Sacred.
Pileser I, King in Mesopotamia, enthusiastic gardener
cultivated in Peru.
and Days by Hesiod.
Gardens of Babylon.
Built by slaves and peasants directed by King Nebuchadnezzar II.
cane grown along the Indus River.
the Great (521-485) and his paradise garden in Persia.
of Halicarnassos (484-426) writes on history,
and life in the ancient world.
(circa 460-377) Greek physician. Wrote 87 treatises.
Many herbal remedies.
at the Academy, Athens, Greece
in the Jewish sacred scriptures - Pentateuch.
Living Links to the Classical Past. By John M. McMahon.
(384-322) Greek philosopher and scientist.
Wrote 26 treatises on natural science.
On Plants, Parts of Animals, On the Soul, Generation, Physics, On the Heavens.
Theophrastus inherited Aristotle's botanic garden in Athens, and many of
on plants and gardening written by Theophrastus.
is considered by some to be the "Father of Botany."
of information, seeds and plants between Greece and Persia.
of Plants and Theoretical Botany by Theophrastus.
Living Links to the Classical Past.
By John M. McMahon.
of Greek biology.
(341-271) used a large garden for gatherings and walks. The
the Gardens of Epicurus; or, Of Gardening. By Sir
William Temple, 1685.
and extensive gardens and palace of the first Chinese emperor Ch'in Shih
Huang-ti were burned by peasants and Confucian rebels.
Dutthagamini in India has a large artwork of the Sacred Fig Tree (Buddha's
tree) made of precious materials and placed in the Great Gold Dust Dagoba
park and gardens.
Italy [Helphand 1977]
eating, drinking, farming, farming and starving exhibit.
cultivated in Greece.
(234-149) wrote on the simple country life.
Agriculture, by Cato the Elder, emphasizes planting olives and grapes.
harvesting at Karanis,
Lin (Great Grove) immense imperial garden of the Chinese emperor Wu-ti.
Yuan ("yuan" is chinese for "garden") occupied over 1000 km² and
contained more than 300 palaces.
park and gardens of the Chinese Emperor Wu Ti (140-87) in West China, Chang-an.
staple grain was spelt.
Re Rustica. Varro
(116-27). Roman agriculture. Varro was a prolific author,
and he noted that there were over 40 known treatises available on the subject
in 40 BCE.
Virgil. Roman rural life.
and Sacred Trees
Materia Medica. Dioscorides
the Greek. Herbal medicine.
Re Rustica, On Agriculture and Trees ... Columella.
History (Naturalis Historica). Pliny
the Elder (23-79). Roman naturalist.
Aquae Ductibus. Frontinus. Waterworks in the
garden and farm.
villa at the base of the Apennies
the Younger (61-113) Letters about villa gardens.
Hadrian's Villa near Tivoli.
of the Roman
Empire (circa 100 BCE - 500 AD) actively exchanged information on agriculture,
horticulture, animal husbandry, hydraulics, and botany. Seeds
and plants were widely shared.
making paper from rags, bark, hemp and other fibrous materials.