he most typical feature of the Baroque was a need for magnificence and
splendor. “This may be the reason behind the Baroque love of highly ornate
decorations: the more lavish the twirls and flourishes, the more light
and splendor they could represent.”
The park composition of Italian
Baroque villas was developed symmetrically to an emphasized main axes.
Modeling of forms and breaking of the monotony of spaces became the leading
trends in the new plans along with unity of gardens and architecture.
The use of water in order
to bring some dynamics into the composition outlines the decorative strives
of the Baroque art of gardening. During the Renaissance the fountain represented
the ultimate architectural and sculptural element to which water was just
an addition. In Baroque water clearly had an equal significance together
with architecture and sculpture in the complex picturesque assemblages
fountains had turned into. Water drew with its complex lines and shapes
the final outlines of the fountains. The light and joyful water streams
and the clear canals from the early Renaissance grew into uproaring cascades
with giant water columns and free majestic waterfalls. In this respect,
the cascade represents the most characteristic facility type in Italian
Baroque gardens. A marvelous example is the cascade at Kazerta where water
flows over and sprays above statues representing widely dancing mythology
effigies. In the skilful hands of the great masters water changed into
a plastic, dynamic element closely connected with sculpture.
The various plant species
took an increasingly important place in parks and garden compositions.
The parterres were laid out over greater spaces and enriched by more and
more complex decorative figures and arabesques. The high dark green cypresses
with their reflections in the pools served as a background for statues
and vases. Roses covered the supporting walls and columns and formed colorful
tunnels. People stared exploring nature intensely. Baroque was the time
when the green theatre first appeared, when terraced increased in number
and decreased in height and width and when sculpture started representing
entire ornate theatre scenes.
Baroque was the time when
the garden was valued as high as a painting, a statue, a poem: a creation
which brought up adoration for its beauty.