De Broglie's theory.
The French physicist Louis Victor duc de Broglie has applied wave-corpuscle treatment and to particles of substance: as the light detects corpuscular properties, also particles of substance should detect undular properties. De Broglie has utillized already wave-corpuscle properties, accepted for a light, and their quantum rule and has expressed a wave length through the performances of a particle.
For a light the corpuscular point of view determines energy and impulse accordingly by expressions E = mc2 and p = mc.
The wave length of a particle of substance is determined under the formula:
At adding in a rule of quantization of a moment of momentum of an electron the impulse of an electron, will turn out a relation nl = 2pr. From it follows, that on length of a stationary orbit of an electron the integer of lengths of waves should be stacked. Thus, the requirement of existence of allowed orbits, which was injected by Bohr frequency relation, acquires legible physical sense: the allowed orbits are orbits supposing formation on them of standing waves of an electron.
For a rectilinear motion of particles de Broglie has offered expression, which is made by analogy with the equation for a spread flat light wave in the complex shape:
De Broglie's Waves.
The specified waves have received a title of associated waves. Thus, the associated waves are traveling waves for freely propellent electrons or standing waves for electrons, which are bound in atoms. De Broglie's waves are not waves of propellent substance, they have not analog in classical physics.
De Broglie's guess about existence of undular properties of particles carries universal character: undular properties should have the electron, positive proton, neutron, atom, molecule, any moving object. However objects, which have major masses and move with usual velocities, will have a so small wave length To in comparison with the sizes of objects, that the phenomena of an interference and diffraction for them can completely be neglected. The undular properties of a light are clearly shown in cases, when the wave length has compared to the sizes of bodies, with which the light interreacts. The lengths of waves of electrons in usual requirements have the order of the nuclear sizes, hence, the effects are characteristic for them which are observed usually for Roentgen rays. For such small lengths of waves it is possible to observe a diffraction on nuclear crystal lattices.