Structure of atom.
Just as in the atom of hydrogen, in more composite atoms electrons can rotate around of a kern on allowed orbits only. The orbits in composite atoms cluster in system of shells. Each shell contains a particular number of orbits, an electron can be on any og them. A K-shell is the closest to a kern and contains two orbits. The second is a L-shell has eight orbits. The third is a M-shell has eight orbits, the fourth N-shell has 18 orbits etc.
Parameters of atom.
When the electron travels from an orbit of greater radius to an orbit of smaller radius, the energy is oozed. But the transition from outer shells on interior is possible only when there are free orbits on the leter. The outer-shell electrons are less bound to a kern than interior ones: they are on greater distance from a kern, and the electrons, which are on inner shells, screen the nuclear charge. Therefore just a small amount of energy is sufficient for excitation of outer-shell electrons. The quantums of energy radiated at transition of such electrons in a nonexcited state have a quantity of about several electron-volt. Greater energy is necessary to detach inner-shell electrons from the atom. The greater the nuclear charge the greater energy is needed. Therefore, when there is a transition of electrons from outer shells to a K-shell in heavy atoms, the emission of quantums with energy of hundreds and even thousand electron-volt is possible. Such quantums of high energy are called Roentgen rays.
X-ray spectrums of atoms.
The X-rays results from losses by atom of an inner-shell electron: The transition of electrons is accompanied by an emission of quantums of high energy with a small wave length, which are termed as Roentgen rays.
The X-rays emerges when atom losses inner-shell electron: The transition of electrons is accompanied by an emission of quantums of high energy with a small wave length called Roentgen rays. The atom can lose inner-shell electrons as a result of an electron bombardment with electrons speeded up to energy of several thousand electron-volt. The wave length of the X-rays is comparable to interatomic distance in solid bodies. The examination of the X-ray diffraction on crystal lattices of solid bodies enables, knowing a wave length of Roentgen rays, to determine interatomic distances in them. The examination of Roentgen rays also allows to determine nuclear charge, because it depends on a prime relation of an electron-binding energy in atom, which is expressed through energy of the X-rays. This relation is called Moseley's law:
n = A (Z - B)
n - frequency of a line in a X-ray characteristic spectrum of a device; A and B - constants; Z - serial number of a device in periodic system