An airplane goes through many changes in designs and test models before it is built. There are four main areas of aeronautics: Aerodynamics, propulsion, structures and materials and stability and control.
Aerodynamics: Itís the study of air flowing over the plane. The more streamlined and aerodynamic the plane the less the work the engines have to do. Aerodynamic differ in airplanes, for example a fighter jet has to move quickly and make sharp turns therefore they need to be very aerodynamic.
Propulsion: Itís the study of what kind of engine a plane needs. It needs the right engine for what it is required to do. Engines are constantly being updated so that there is less noise and air pollution.
Structures and Materials: Itís the study of how strong the plane is and what materials will need to be used for it to be as lightweight as possible. They also need to be easy to build and easy to maintain.
Stability and Control: Itís the study of how an airplane will handle once it has been built. The information that the pilot needs in the cockpit, for example speed-readings, needs to be easily accessed. All the controls must be able to be easily reached so that it will respond to the pilotís movement and instructions quickly.
All the four areas are related to one another. An improvement in one could mean that the performance of another goes down. Often a model of the airplane or just a wing is used in a wind tunnel. This allows engineers to test the airplane to see just how aerodynamic it is and how it responds the changes in air pressure and wind.
The above picture shows the basic design of a basic Concorde.
1. Droop nose
2. Fuselage nose
3. Flight deck
4. Landing gear nose
5. Passenger cabin
6. Forward wing
7,8,9,10,11 and 18 center wing
9.Landing gear main
13.Rolls Royce (Bristol) turbojets
17.Varible exhaust nozzle
Which way do you want to go?