Khafre (Chephren) was the son of Cheops, who succeeded his brother Dedefre to the throne. He ruled probably for 25 years, and he returned to Giza for his burial, and he constructed there next to pyramid complex of Cheops, which represented the standard pattern adopted by subsequent pyramids.
Its name was "wr hc.f Re", "Chephren is great". Chephren's pyramid lay to the south of the great pyramid, and it was only 13m. (10 ft.) lower than that of Cheops. He has chosen a higher place to build his pyramid on it, accordingly his pyramid came to be the central one being in between the other 2 pyramids, and this pyramid appeared to be dominating the Giza plateau. In addition to this, the pyramid was surrounded in its northern, southern and western sides by temenos wall, and parts are still visible.
The most distinctive external feature of Chephren's pyramid was that a part from its size was the substantial position of its outer casing, which remained intact near the Apex. Moreover, some parts from the casing have been preserved at the base. The stones employed in building the pyramid differed in each place; the upper remnant was composed of Tura limestone, whereas the lower was composed of red granite stone, and this was the sole material used to case parts at the bottom. The height of the pyramid originally was 143.3 meters and 215.5 square with slope of 53 10 , and the faces rising slightly more steeply than those of the great pyramid.
This pyramid has two entrances on its northern face. The one which was discovered by Belzoni stood about 11 meters from the ground, whereas the other one was cut in the rock at ground level a few meters from the pyramid. Moreover, its interior arrangement was very simple. In addition to this, the upper entrance on one hand led to a passage, which was walled and roofed with red granite. It descended at angle of 26 to a horizontal passage, which was closed vertically by granite portcullis. On the other hand, the lower entrance led to a descending passage with a slope of 22 and this seemed to have been the original entrance. The sloping passage ended at a portcullis, then followed a horizontal corridor and another sloping passage, which led to a burial chamber. As a matter of fact, the horizontal passage continued after another portcullis sloping upward again, and it joined the passage coming from the upper entrance and both merged into a long horizontal gallery cut in the rock, which ended at the final chamber. The chamber was excavated in the rock, but was roofed with slabs of limestone. Finally we have to mention the fact, that the sarcophagus was set on the floor at the far (western) end of the chamber and it was polished with beautiful granite, when it was polished with beautiful granite, when it was discovered, its lid lay upon the floor.
Language: Aspects of writing | Linguistic Features | Hieroglyphs etc.Gods
Gods: Isis | Ra | Set | Osiris | Qebhsennef | Maat
Pyramids: Building stones | Egypt Land of the pyramids | Canstruction of Pyramids | Huni's Pyramid | Zoser's step Pyramid | Sneferu's Pyramid | The solar Boat | The grest pyeamid of cheops | Chephren's pyramid | Senusert I's pyramid | Sphinx
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