Saint Petersburg was founded in 1703. The history of its birth differs much from the ones of other European countries. Petersburg appeared in no time on the demand of the ferocious tzar Peter the Great in the mouth of the river Neva on the boggy plain, while the large cities and capitals were growing round the fortress.
His primary plan does not need any changes nowadays. Saint Petersburg was constructed as an European city and the influence of the European culture had a great effect on its look. Peter I (the Great) was a maximalist by his nature, he had a lot of mighty projects. He wanted to see the realization of all his plans, but his associates, though energetic and active, were inexperienced and of low education and culture. Peter understood that several decades would be needed for the education of people, that is why in 1702 he promulgated "The Manifesto About Calling The Foreigners Into Russia", addressed to the inhabitants of the West Europe. A lot of builders and architects, military men and shipwrights, masons and craftsmen arrived into the city to be involved in its construction.
There were a lot of Italians among them, who made an important contribution into the construction and development of the new city. Italian architects erected beautiful buildings, Italian opera conquered the stages of Saint Petersburg, Italian scientists were the pride of the Academy of Sciences. Many streets and squares in Saint Petersburg have been named in honor of Italians, a lot of monuments have been erected.