A mutation is a spontaneous in the one or
more bases of the DNA molecule, by insertion,
deletion, or substitution.
Insertion and deletion will usually cause
a very significant change in the DNA sequence.
For example, the CCAUGTAUCGTG DNA sequence gives
CCA, UGT, AUC, and GTG triplets. But the
insertion of an A will give very
different triplets. The new DNA sequence is CCAAUGTAUCGTG.
Since the sequence of DNA is still going to be
read in 3s, this will give you CCA, AUG,
TAU, CGT. Thus an insertion of deletion will
affect all the base sequence downstream of the
DNA molecule. This will lead to the production
of an entire set of totally different proteins.
As a result, the mutants will have distinctive
On the other hand, a substitution
is relatively harmless. One base is changed to
another, and only 1 amino acid may be changed.
Mutants usually look similar to the normal ones,
and their mutation may not be discovered without
a thorough check up.
can sometimes produce useful qualities that will
enhance the survival of the individual, but most
of the times, its effect is disastrous. Victims
suffer from mental retardation, organ disorder
and ineffective body systems.
and Maternal Chromosomes