Primitive life begins in Egypt. Nomadic herds and tribes were common.
Farming and domestication of animals and first settlements along the Nile Valley.
Pottery and gold ornaments were made.
The kingdom of the Red Land is established in the north, White Land in the south; they are ruled concurrently under two kings.
Scorpion, a southern king, makes initial attempts to conquer the northern kingdom Archaic period.
The Unification of Egypt under Narmer (Menes) 3000 B.C. Invention of Writing on the Papyrus.
Den , follows an active foreign policy sending expeditions to Nubia Irrigation Systems developed.
King Peribsen and supporters of the god Seth lose struggle with supporters of the cult of Horus; Horus becomes royal patron deity.
The Old Kingdom
3rd Dynasty begins Sanakhte.
Djoser Builds Step Pyramid at Saqqara.
4th Dynasty, Snerfu, builds the Bent Pyramid, and the Mediunm Pyramid.
The Great Pyramid of Cheops(Khufu) is Built.
Chepren(Khafre) Builds the Second Pyramid and the Sphinxat Giza.
5thDynasty begins under Userkaf.
Unas's pyramids at Saqqara having earliest examples of Pyramid Texts.
6th Dynasty Begins, under Teti.
Pepi II , Builds a Pyramid at Saqqara.
The First Intermediate
Begining Of Dynasty 7 by Wadjkare.
Begining of 8th Dynasty by Qakare Iby.
Meryibre founded the 9th dynasty.
Twin Dynasties of 10 and 11 set up at Thebes and Heracleopolis Khety and Merikare.
Mentuhotep , a Thebian Prince reunites Egypt and Builds a spectacular Mortuary at Dier -El- Bahri.
Begining Of Dynasty 12 , Amenemhet I.
Senurset I. Coregent with Amenemhet I, extends Egyptian power and furthers Egypt's interests a broad.
Senurset III Nubia is Colonized Abolishes powers and priveledges of nobles.
1842 B.C.Amenemhet III. the Middle Kingdom reaches the pinnacle of its prosperity.
Amenemhet IV. The kingdom begins to decline. He is ousted by his sister, Sobekneferu.
Sobekneferu. The queen regnant. Dynasty 12 comes to an end.
Begining Of Dynasty 13 and 14 A line of 40 kings rule from thebes, and 70 from Xois.
The Hyksos invade Egypt and form two dynasties(15 and 16) of foreign kings.
Hyksos ruler Auserre Apophis I encounters opposition from native Theban princes of Dynasty 17.
Theban ruler Seqenenre Ta'o II fights bravely against the Hyksos possibly dies in battle.
Dynasty 18 Amosis I. The founder of the dynasty expels the Hyksos from Egypt and pursues them to Palestine.
Amenhotep I. Lays the foundations for the Egyptian Empire with his conquests in Palestine.
Thutmose I extends the empire into south-west Asia
Hatshepsut. After seizing the throne from her stepson, Tuthmosis III, she becomes queen regnant.
Tuthmosis III. Regains power from Hatshepsut to become Egypt'sgreatest military leader.
Amenhotep II. The son of Tuthmosis III is a great warrior and sportsman.
Amenhotep IV(Akhetaten) A religious revolutionary, he disbands the traditional priesthoods and introduces an exclusive, near-monotheistic worship of the Aten.
Tutankhamun. He begins the gradual restoration of the traditional religion and returns the religious capital to Thebes. He dies young.
Horemheb. Of obscure, non-royal parentage, he was previously the army commander under Akhenaten.
Dynasty 19 Sethos I. A warrior king, he reestablishes the empire in Palestine which had been allowed to slip away during Akenaten's reign.
Ramesses II. A noted warrior and prolific builder, he is possibly the pharaoh of the Old Testament's Exodus
Ramesses III. The last great warrior king defeats the Libyans and Sea People. He builds a magnificent temple at Medinet Habu, Thebes, and his tomb in the Valley of the Kings.
Ramesses XI. The kingdom is virtually divided in half: the king rules the north, but the high priests of Amun seize power and attain near-equal status, effectively ruling the south from Thebes. The Turin and Wilbur papyrus were written.
The third Intermediate
21st Dynasty The north was inherited by the Tanite 21st dynasty and much of the Nile Valley came under the control of the Theban priests.
Starting from Osorkon I , the Libyan Rule started over Egypt, begining of 22nd - 23rd dynasties.
From the 9th century B.C. local Cushite state, arose in the Sudan and developed around the old regional capital of Napata.
A Libyan prince of Sais, Tefnakhte, attempting to gain control over all Egypt , managed to gain control over Northen Egypt.
The Cushites had withdrawn from he Egyptian political scene.
The Late Period
Psamtik I lays the foundations of the Saite Dynasty.
Cambyses II laid the foundations of the Persian rule in Egypt.
Darius I succeeded Cambyses. He codified Egyptian law and restored a lot of Temples.
Amyrtaeus set up the 28 saite dynasty after the death of Darius II
Achoris Set up the 29 Dynasty This was a period of peace and many monuments were built.
Second Persian Period Artaxerxes III took over Egypt.
Macedonian and Ptolemaic Period
Alexander the Great invades Egypt.
The city of Alexandria is founded.
Ptolemy I , the son of a macedonian nobleman , becomes the ruler of Egypt.
Begining of 5wars with the Selucids over the possessions of Syria and Levant.
Complete census of the kingdom that was to record everything from the water sources to the extent of priestly land holdings.
Antiochus IV of Syria invaded Egypt and established a protectorate , but he was forced to withdraw by the Romans.
Last ruler, Cleopatra VII, allied with Mark Antony against Rome. Defeated at the Battle of Actium by Octavian.
Roman and Byzantine Period
Emperor Augustus(Octavian) added Egypt to the empire of Rome.
Emperor Caracalla granted the entire population of Egypt citizen- ship in the Roman Empire.
Egypt was lost to the central imperial authority for two years when it fell into the hands of the ruling dynasty of the Syrian city of Palmyra.
Invasion by the Sassanids of Persia but they were expelled in 628 A.D. 642 A.D. Egpyt is conquered by the Arabs , Islam becomes the main relegion.