Atmospheric components: 86% Hydrogen, 14% Helium, 0.2 %Methane.
Jupiter is the largest and most massive planet in
our universe. It is an enormous spinning ball of liquid and gas 90,000 miles
It is 10 times the size of the earth and 318 times as massive. In
fact, Jupiter is larger than all the other known planets combined. Because
of it's size the gravity on Jupiter is much stronger than that on earth.
A landing on Jupiter will never take place because it has no surface.
Jupiter is made mostly of hydrogen and helium. It also contains some iron and rock, which forms the the center of Jupiter. This core exists under 40,000 miles of moltern hydrogen, which is a part of Jupiter's dense atmosphere. The atmosphere also contains gases such as ammonia, methane, and acetylene. Water is present in the form of steam in the lower atmosphere where the temperatures are higher. Water droplets are present in the higher altitudes where the air is cooler. The water droplets form a layer of clouds which cover the surface of the planet. Tiny crystals of ammonia form the second layer and float above the water clouds. The ammonia coulds give Jupiter it's visible pattern.
In 1979 the spacecraft, Voyager reached Jupiter. While it flew over, it photographed the mysterious Red Spot, and Jupiter's four largest moons. The Red Spot is an orange-red oval 15,000 miles long and 8000 miles wide. It is about the size of the pacific ocean. The swirling motions visible in the photographs suggest that the Spot is a huge hurricane. It has been active for at least 300 years. The force behind this power is unknown.
Enormous storms and winds form from the energy given off by eddies ( currents of air or running water that run opposite to the main current). Yet at the same time, evidence from NASA’s Galileo images reveals that thunderstorms in turn propels the eddies.
Below the thunderstorms, Jupiter has no solid surface. But Jupiter isn’ the only planet like this. The other gas planets, Saturn Uranus, and Neptune are liquid as well. The cloud bands that run latitudinally, are fromed from east-west winds that move them. These clouds are disrupted by storms after hundreds of years.
Jupiter has been studied for nearly 400 years. Galileo studied its four large moons and later discovered that the Earth could not be the center of the universe if other moons were circling planets other than our own. Newton calculated the mass and density of Jupiter by observing the orbits of these large satelites.