Origin of the Internet, Part 2
Due to Kleinrock's early development of packet switching theory and his focus on analysis, design and measurement, his Network Measurement Center at UCLA was selected to be the first node on the ARPANET. All this came together in September 1969 when BBN installed the first IMP at UCLA and the first host computer was connected. Doug Engelbart's project on "Augmentation of Human Intellect" (which included NLS, an early hypertext system) at Stanford Research Institute (SRI) provided a second node. SRI supported the Network Information Center, led by Elizabeth (Jake) Feinler and including functions such as maintaining tables of host name to address mapping as well as a directory of the RFC's. One month later, when SRI was connected to the ARPANET, the first host-to-host message was sent from Kleinrock's laboratory to SRI. Two more nodes were added at UC Santa Barbara and University of Utah. These last two nodes incorporated application visualization projects, with Glen Culler and Burton Fried at UCSB investigating methods for display of mathematical functions using storage displays to deal with the problem of refresh over the net, and Robert Taylor and Ivan Sutherland at Utah investigating methods of 3-D representations over the net. Thus, by the end of 1969, four host computers were connected together into the initial ARPANET, and the budding Internet was off the ground. Even at this early stage, it should be noted that the networking research incorporated both work on the underlying network and work on how to utilize the network. This tradition continues to this day.
Computers were added quickly to the ARPANET during the following years, and work proceeded on completing a functionally complete Host-to-Host protocol and other network software. In December 1970 the Network Working Group (NWG) working under S. Crocker finished the initial ARPANET Host-to-Host protocol, called the Network Control Protocol (NCP). As the ARPANET sites completed implementing NCP during the period 1971-1972, the network users finally could begin to develop applications.
1972 Kahn organized a large, very successful demonstration of the ARPANET at
the International Computer Communication Conference (ICCC). This was the first
public demonstration of this new network technology to the public. It was also
in 1972 that the initial "hot" application, electronic mail, was introduced.
In March Ray Tomlinson at BBN wrote the basic email message send and read software,
motivated by the need of the ARPANET developers for an easy coordination mechanism.
In July, Roberts expanded its utility by writing the first email utility program
to list, selectively read, file, forward, and respond to messages. From there
email took off as the largest network application for over a decade. This was
a harbinger of the kind of activity we see on the World Wide Web today, namely,
the enormous growth of all kinds of "people-to-people" traffic.
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Origin of Internet, Part 1
Team ID: C0116084