Magnesium has many different properties. It is a solid (state of matter) in
the form of metal in certain circumstances. It is lightweight, but strong as a metal.
Pure magnesium is silvery white, soft, ductile, and is a malleable metal that
oxidizes in the air. It is a very highly reactive metal and it dissolves in acids. This
element slowly decomposes in boiling water and it is one of the most important
metals in both plants and animals.
The history of aluminum starts with Hans Christian Oersted,
a Dutch chemist who isolated aluminum in 1845, using a
potassium amalgam. Friedrich Wholer, a German chemist,
improved the previous process by using a metallic potassium.
Friedrich was also the first person to measure the specific gravity
of aluminum. Pure aluminum was first seen at the Paris exposition
Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust.
Aluminum is a silver colored, lightweight metal. Its atomic weight
is 26.9815. Aluminum is also extremely reactive. Aluminum is
covered in a layer of aluminum oxide which resists coffosion
because all things made of aluminum don't rust or tarnish. It
reduces many other metal compounds to their base metals.|
Aluminum is only outnumbered by the nonmetals oxygen
and silicon. It is never found as a free metal. The silicates of
aluminum are not useful ores. Bauxite is the commercial source of
aluminum. The Hall-Heroult process, a low-cost tequnique that
reduces aluminum to a crude molten metal, is the major method of
commercially producing aluminum. Aluminum in a commercially
pure form is about 99.5% pure, but it can further be purified to
Aluminum has a high heat conductivity, and because of this,
it can be used in kitchen utensils and the pistons of
internal-combustion engines. It can also be used in cars, planes,
and train cars because of its light weight. Aluminum is becoming
important in architecture for constructional and decorative
purposes. Aluminum is a good insulator, so it is used for siding,
foil, and storm windows. It gets stronger as it gets colder, therefore
it is used at cryogenic temperature. Aluminum also resists corrosion in
water, so it is used for boat hulls.
Argon is used in electric light bulbs, fluorescent tubes, and is used for
fliling incandescent light bulbs. In incandescent light bulbs the argon
replaces the oxygen-rich air that corrodes the Tungsten filament and causes
blackening of the bulb. It can also be used in a neon lamp. The pure neon gives off
a red color, where as argon gives a blue color. Argon lasers can manufacture a
variety of blue-green wavelengths of light. They are used in laser entertainment
shows and have many medical uses, such as laser eye surgery and in hardening
dental fillings. Argon is also used for arc-welding metals, such as aluminum and
stainless steel. It is commonly used for the building and manufacturing of
metals, such as titanium, zirconium, uranium, and also for growing crystals
of semiconductors, such as silicon and germanium.
Argon is a chemical element and its atomic number is 18. Argon is
tasteless, colorless, odorless, and forms one percent of the earth's
atmosphere. Sir William Ramsay and Baron Rayleigh discovered argon in a
experiment. They removed all the nitrogen and oxygen from the air. The
heaviest gas that was remaining was argon, which was the first noble gas that
was discovered on Earth, and is most common out of all the noble gases. A major
portion of earthly argon has been produced in potassium-containing minerals by
the decay of rare, naturally radioactive isotope potassium-40. The gas slowly
leaks out into the atmosphere from the rocks and keeps producing.|
In argons outermost shell it has eight electrons. This makes It very stable
and chemically motionless. Argon atoms do not combine together and also have
not been recorded to come together chemically with atoms of any other element.
Argon gas condenses to a colorless liquid at -302.4 degrees fahrenheit, and to a
solid at -308.9 degrees fahrenheit. The amount of argon that will dissolve in 100
volumes of water at a temperature of 53.6 degrees fahrenheit is 3.94 volumes of
Sir William Ramsay, a British scientist best known for his work in the
separation of elemental gases from the atmosphere. Ramsay worked as a
professor of chemistry at the University of Bristol from 1880 to 1887 and at the
University of London from 1887 until 1913. He was awarded with the 1904 Nobel
Prize in chemistry. While looking for sources of argon in the mineral territory,
Ramsay discovered helium in 1895. Besides argon, Ramsay also discovered
neon, krypton, and xenon and contributed to the finding that helium is a product
found by the breakup of radium.
We do not really know who first discovered arsenic, but
it is thought that Albertos Magnus, a German chemist, first
isolated it around 1250 AD. We do know that the early Greeks
and Romans had their slaves mine arsenic, and that the
ancient Chinese prepared and used arsenic.
Arsenic is almost always thought of as a poison, but what
people overlook is all its other uses in everyday life. It
is a brittle, gray, semi-metal. Though it looks metallic, it
is a poor conductor of heat and electricity. On the periodic
table, arsenic is element thirty-three. Its symbol is As and
has an atomic weight of 74.9216. It has a crystalline struc-
ture and a melting point of 14,860 F. Arsenic combines easily
with metals to form compounds called arsenides. It also
forms two oxides: arsenic trioxide (AS303), and arsenic pent-
oxide (As2O5). It is most commonly found in arsenopyrite (FeAsS).|
The most widely known use of arsenic is as a poison. It
is used in bug, weed, and rat poisons. It is also highly
toxic to humans and can cause cancer when it comes in contact
with humans. If ingested in small amounts over time, it will
produce the symptoms of pneumonia and the victim will die
with hardly a trace Of arsenic in his body.
Coroners today have ways of detecting the smallest amounts in an
autopsy, so arsenic is rarely used for poisoning people anymore.
It was discovered that Napoleon Bonaparte might have died from
arsenic poisoning. Massive amounts of arsenic were found in
his hair structure. The dye in the wallpaper of his room
large amounts of arsenic, and the damp may have created a deadly
gas which he inhaled.
Arsenic today is used in a lot of things besides poison.
Arsenides can be found in paints, wallpapers,
shotgun pellets, mirrors and semiconductors.
One of the most interesting
uses of arsonic is when it is added to gallium to make
gallium arsen-ide. This produces light as a laser beam
and is the light emitting diode that reads your
The chemical symbol for Beryllium is Be, its atomic
number is 4, and its atomic weight is 9.0122. Beryllium is part
of the Alkaline Earth metals. Its boiling point is 2770 C, and its
melting point is 1277 C. It is ordinarily a metal (at 298 K).
Beryllium has a density of 1.85 kg at the temperature of 293
Beryllium is a light gray metal discovered by Nicholas
Louis Vauquelin in 1797. This metal has four
protons, and 5 neutrons. Beryllium is used in
space shuttles, missiles, communications satellites, and X-ray tubes.
It is the forth atom on the Periodic Table of
Elements, and is also used in the nuclear industry. The
early Egyptians used beryllium alloys and Emeralds for showy
Beryllium metal is available commercially and would never,
under normal conditions, be made in a laboratory. Its
extraction from ores is very complex. It is heated gradually to the very high
temperature of 7000 C with sodium hexafluorosilicate, Na2SiF6. This
procedure forms beryllium fluoride. This is water soluble and
the beryllium may be precipitated as the hydroxide Be(OH)2 by
changing the pH indicator.
Beryllium metal dust can cause major lung damage, and
beryllium salts are very toxic. Compounds containing
beryllium are very poisonous and only to be handled by a
professional under controlled conditions. One way for
beryllium into the biosphere is by way of industrial smoke. It
seems that some types of camping gas mantle may cause
problems as a consequence of their beryllium content.
Boron is not found free in nature, but it is found in volcanic sprin
water and as orthoboric acid. It is also found as borates in boron and
colemantie. Ulexite, also a boron mineral, is natures own version of fiber
optics. Sources of boron are ore rasorite (kernite) and tincal (borax ore).
These are both found in the Mojave Desert. Tincal is the most important
boron source from the Mojave. Boron deposits can also be found in
Turkey. Boron exists naturally as 19.78% 10B isotope and 80.22% 11B isotope
High-purity crystalline boron may be prepared by the vapor phase
reduction of boron trichloride or tribromide with hydrogen on electrically
heated filaments. Heating the trioxide with magnesium powder can make
impure boron, a brownish-black powder. Boron has an energy band gap of
1.5 to 1.56 eV, which is higher than that of germanium or silicon. Boron
is a bad conductor of electricity at room temperature but a good
conductor at a high temperature.
Boron has been around for thousands of years; however, it had only
been found in compounds until Sir Humphry Davy, Gay-Lussac, and
Thenard discovered pure boron in 1808. Their discovery led to a
deduction of the atomic number, weight, and electronic configuration. The
atomic number is 5, its atomic weight is 1 0.81, its electronic
configuration is [He] and its symbol is B.|
Impure boron is used in pyrotechnic flares to make a distinctive
green color, and in rockets as an igniter.
This pentahydrate is used in very large quantities in the manufacture of
insulation fiberglass and sodium perborate bleach.
Boric acid is also an important boron compound with major markets
in textile products. Use of borax as a mild antiseptic is minor in terms of
dollars and tons. Boron compounds are also extensively used in the
manufacture of borosilicate glasses. Other boron compounds are used in
treating arthritis. The isotope boron-10 is used as a shield for nuclear
radiation, as a control for nuclear reactors, and in instruments for
Boron nitride has remarkable properties and can also be used to
make a material as hard as a diamond. The nitride behaves like an
electrical insulator but conducts heat like a metal. Boron also has
properties similar to graphite like lubrication. The hydrides are easily
oxidized with considerable energy liberation and have been studied for use
as rocket fuels. Demand is also increasing for boron filaments, a high-
strength, lightweight material chiefly employed for advanced aerospace
structures. Boron is similar to carbon in that it has a capacity to form
stable covalently bonded molecular networks. Carbonates,
metalloboranes, and other families comprise thousands of compounds
Crystalline boron (99%] costs about $5/g. Amorphous boron costs
about $2/g. Elemental boron and the borates are not considered to be
toxic, and they do not require special care in handling. However, some of
the more exotic boron hydrogen compounds are definitely toxic and do
require careful handling.
It is a heavy, volatile, mobile, and
dangerous element. The red vapor is
strong and unpleasant odor and
irritates the eye and the throat. If
spilled on your skin it will
produce painful sores. The radii of the
bromine atom is 1 PM( 1 X 10-12).
The history of bromine begins with
creation. But was discovered in 1826 by
Antoine-J. Its name comes from the Greek word
bromos, which means stench. It was
first used in compounds to make a mussel
dye called Tyrian purple it was known as
organobromine. A student, Carl LDwig,
at Heidelberg gave Leopold Gmelin, his
lecturer, a sample of bromine that he
made over the summer. This sample was
enough for Balard to take precedence in
1826. The element bromine was not
produced in mass quantity until 1860.
Bromine is a Halogen in period table
4. Its atomic mass is 79.904 (1). Its
atomic number is 35 and its symbol is
Br. It is the only none metal that is a
liquid at room temperature. It is a
red-brown, metallic lustre when solid.|
Bromine has many uses. One is
fumigants. It can also be used as a
flame proofing agent in many types of
materials. It also is being used for
water purification compounds which is a
little confusing because it is also used
as a pesticide to kill pests. Bromine also is used
to make plastics flame retardant.
Also It is used, when in inorganic bromide
form, in photography. Bromine's shell
structure is: 2-8-18-7. It has a
structure of 2-6-6-2, 4-6-4, 2-6-6-2,
This historical background of cadmium started when
Friedrich Stormeyer, who was a significant scientist of
the eight-teenth century in Germany discovered it in 1817.
He obtained a sample of zinc carbonate for laboratory use
and use and observed that the odd samples changed colors
when they were influenced by heat. This was a characteristic
that did not exict in pure zinc caronate. The impurity of
the zinc carbonate let the curious scinetist to hypothesize that another
element was present in his sample. He eventually proved his educated
guess to be a silvery-gray metal, and is now known as Cadmium.
The element cadmium, although not widely known,
is quit useful and is also important to our society.
Here are a few example of cadmium's historical background,
its technical data and the practical and every day uses of this element.|
Thanks to stromeyer, scientits of today now know
that cadmium is usually found in very small quanities that
are associated with zinc ores. Cadium is very similar in
many aspects to zinc and should be handled with care because
of its toxic properties. It Is also a natural emement in the
earth's crust and has no definite taste or odor.
Cadiums chemical symbol is Cd and its atomic
number is 48. It has an atomic weight of 112.411 grams
and is in group 12 of the periodic table. The element
is in a solid state at room temperature and it's boiling
point is at 1038 Kelvin or 756 degrees celsius.
Carbon exists in three main forms. They are diamond, graphite, and
carbon black or amorphous carbon. Pure diamond is the hardest substance
know to man that naturally occurs. Dimonnds are very valuable,
beautiful and used in jewelry. Also because of their hardness, they are
used for cutting, grinding, and drilling. It is also a very bad conductor of
electricity. Then, graphite is a soft and slippery solid that does conduct
electricity. Graphite makes a very good lubricant and is also used in paints.
Another use of graphite is when it is mixed with clay to become pencil lead.
Amorphous carbon forms include charcoal, lampblack, coal, and coke.
Over 1,000,000 carbon compounds have been described in chemical
literature, and chemists synthesizes many new ones each year. Because
carbon compounds are so numerous, complex, and important, their study
constitutes for a specialized field of chemistry called organic chemistry.
Also carbon forms compounds that make up about eight-teen percent of all
All living things contain carbon. The human body is about 18% carbon
by weight. Carbon is the sixth element in the Periodic Table of Elements.
Its atomic number is 6, its atomic symbol is C, and its atomic weight is
12.011. Carbon has a melting point of 3,555 C and the boiling point of Carbon is
4,827 C. The word carbon comes from the Latin word carbo, which means
coal, charcoal, or ember. It is abundant in compounds and has many uses.
No one really knows who discovered carbon because it has been here
since creation. It is abundant in the sun ,the stars, comets, and atmospheres
of most planets. Carbon was first recognized as an element in the
seven-teenth century by Robert Boyle.|
In the earth's atmosphere, carbon exists as carbon dioxide. It amounts
of about 0.03 percent by volume, and dissolves in all natural waters. Carbon
also comes in form of carbonates, which are found in the earths crust. These
forms are found in rocks such as marble, limestone, and chalk.
Carbon is very unreactive at ordinary or room temperatures. Also it is
difficult to oxidize. It does not react with acids or alkalies. Carbon does
combine with sulfiir vapor at extremely high temperatures to form carbon
disulfide. It also combines, silicon and certain metals and forms carbides.
Then of course, when it is combined with oxygen it forms oxides, such as
carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2).
Atomic number - 55
Cesium is the 55 element on the Periodic Table of the Elements. It was
discovered by G. R. Kirchhoff and Robert Bunsen in 1860 in mineral water.
They used it in the cesium beam clock from the National Physical Laboratory.
Here are some general things on it.|
Atomic weight - 132.9054
Bonding radius - 2.35
Atomic radius - 3.34
Ionization Potential - 3.894
Electro negativity - .79
Density - g/ml 1.87
Melting point - K 301.55
Boiling point - K 944
Heat of vaporization - kj/mol 67.74
Heat of Fusion - kj/mol 2.092
Specific heat - J/gK 0.24
Cesium is found in large amounts in Bernic Lake, Manitoba. It comes
from the Latin word "caesius" which mean sky blue. The color of cesium is a
silvery white, it is ductile and soft. It is characterized by a spectrum with two
bright lines in the blue along with several others. The blue would explain the
name it was given.
Cesium has the most isotopes out of all the elements. It has 32 isotopes
ranging from 114-145. It is used in atomic clocks, and is accurate at 5 s in 300 yrs.
The chief compounds of cesium are chloride and nitrate.
Cesium is from the alkali metals and like the alkali metals reacts
explosively with cold water. It is the most alkaline element out of all the
elements and also the most electropositive of all. It also reacts with ice and
temperatures above 116C. The strongest base known is cesium hydroxide and
it attacks glass. It is used in electronic tubes as a "getter" because of it's high
affinity for oxygen. It is also used in photoelectric cells, and it is also used as a
catalyst in the hydrogenation of certain organic compounds.
Chromium is used for quite a few
things. You can find chromium in homes or outside. A
water faucet and sink, is made of stainless steal, which
chromium makes 10% of it up. It is also used in high
speed metal cutting tools, when it is mixed with cobalt and
tungsten. This gives it a hardness which is good for this job.
Since it is lustrous and hard to corrode, it is used in the body
trim of many vehicles. It is also used for this reason and many
others because of its high melting point and the stability of its
crystalline structure. The chief use, of chromium is to form
allots with with iron, nickle and cobalt.
The symbol for Chromium is Cr. The atomic
number is 24. Its melting point is at 1857 degrees celsius
and its boiling point is 2672 degrees ceisius.
This element has 9 isotopes and its specific gravity is at
Chromium was discovered by the, French chemist
Louis Nicolas Vauquolin in the year 1797, who named it after
"chroma", the greek word for color since, it is also found in some
precious gems. Vauquelin was very excited with discovery, also
because, he was better at finding things dealing with science,
than his master when he was just a small aprentice. Vauquelin
also went on to discover a lot more chemicals and bonds later
in his life time.|
The element cobalt (Co), was originally isolated by Swedish chemist Georg
Brandt in 1742. He was the one who said the blue color was from cobalt as explained
above. However, one part he did not explain was that the ores were poisonous due to the
fact that most people thought these ores contained another element named copper and did
not know these were arsenic-bearing cobalt ores.
Many artifacts that have been found from ancient Egyptian and Persian
civilizations as far back as 3,000 B.C. and also in China from dynasties dating as far back
as 600 A.D. have contained the color blue. Sometimes this blue color was found in glass
beads, statues, and porcelain. It wasn't until the mid- I 700's that the blue color was finally
attributed to the element cobalt.|
This element makes up only about 0.00 1 % of the Earth's surface. It can be found
in minute quantities of meteoritic native nickel-iron, soils, plants and animals, combined
with other elements in natural waters, and in nodules beneath the oceans. It can even be
found in the Sun, cosmic atmospheres, and in some minerals such as, cobaltite, linnaeite,
heterogenite, and erythrite. Its two allotropes, a hexagonal structure, which is stable
below 417 C (783 F), and a fa6e-centered-cubic, which is stable at very high
temperatures, is known to be part of polished cobalt that is silver-white with a faint bluish
In a compound that has cobalt, cobalt nearly always exhibits a +2 or +3 oxidation
state, although other states are known to exist. Compounds where cobalt is divalent are
called cobaltous, while trivalent cobalt compounds are called cobaltic. However, if cobalt
is finely divided, it will ignite spontaneouly.
The element cobalt has many well known uses both in metals and minerals. One
of its uses is that it can be combined with other metals, such as nickel and iron, to make
alloys or magnets. Of course when combined with nickel, iron, and other metals, we get
Alnico which is used in jet and gas turbine engines. It can be used in electroplating and as
a paint pigment. It is also used in magnet steels and stainless steels.
Another use of the element cobalt is in some minerals and in some materials that
emit high levels of radioactive energy. One of the mineral uses is that it can be found in
Marmite (yeast extract) which happens to be a source of vitamin B 12 which is used in
preventing the disease pernicious anemia. It also can be found in the Australian
Some of the materials cobalt is used in are highly radioactive and very dangerous.
One of these materials happens to be a lethal kind of isotope of cobalt which is cobalt-60.
This isotope of cobalt produces Gamma radiation which is being used in place of X-rays
or alpha rays from the inspection of industrial machines to the treatment of cancer in
hospitals. However, this does not mean it is safe.
radiation. The reason it has already been replaced is that cesium 1-3-7 has a long 30 year
Of course this is probably not the last time we will see cobalt. For in the future
someone might invent something that has the element cobalt. Then again, maybe there
will be a product that involves the element cobalt.
Copper's atomic number is 29, and its symbol is Cu. It has
29 protons and 35 neutrons while combining at a total of 63.546
nucleons. Copper has four shells. The first shell has two
electrons; and the second shell has eight electrons. The third
has eighteen electrons and the fourth only has one electron. It
is classified as a transition metal. Copper's melting point is 1083
degrees Celsius, and its boiling point is 2567 degrees Celsius.
Copper, is an element that has been around for as long
as time, but it has only been mined for the last five thousand
years. A copper pendant discovered in what is now northern Iraq
has been dated about 8700 B.C. It was only in the early eighteen
hundreds that extensive mining of copper took place, primarily in
the American West. Copper has no known discoverer. Its name
was derived from the Latin word 'cyprum". Copper is one of the
most used elements in American history.|
Copper's crystal structure is cubic. It has a reddish orange
color; and has a density of 8.96-gm/cm sq. at 293k.
Because of its many desirable properties, such as its
conductivity of electricity and heat, its resistance to corrosion, its
malleability and ductility and its beauty, copper has long been used in a
wide variety of applications. The prime uses are electrical, because of
copper's extremely high conductivity, which is second only to that of
silver. Because copper is very ductile, it can be drawn into wires of any
diameter from about 0.025 mm (about 0.001 in) upward. The strong point of
drawn copper wire is about 4200-kg/sq cm. It can be used in outdoor power lines and cables, as well as in
house wiring, lamp cords, and electrical machinery such as generators,
motors, controllers, signaling devices, electromagnets, and
communications equipment. Copper is an element that has no lasting
harm on the human body. It can be made into almost anything, and is
an element that is going to make the world a safer more reliable place.
Fluorine in the most reactive element of all the elements. It is
also electronegative. It is a corrosive, pale yellow gas that reacts with
everything. Its atomic number is 9. Its atomic symbol is "F". it has an
atomic weight of 18.998403, and its electron configuration it [HE] 2s2p5.
Most of what fluorine does is blow up and destroy things. It
is used in the nuclear bomb and most other bombs. It is also used
in steel production and aluminum smelting. It is used in etching
glass and light bulbs. One of its added to water to prevent
dental cavities. It is used in toothpaste. It is laundry detergents
and siliofluoride salts.
The element fluorine was discovered in 1529, but only isolated in 1866
by Mossian in Russia. It took seventy-four years of effort and experiments
to turn out successful. It cannot be found in pure form.
It is found as hydrogen Fluoride. Fluorine has too bee kept in steel containers
because it is so dangerous.|
Fluorine is a very useful element. The fluorine industry is a
profitable industry for and important element. Cleaning detergents, toothpaste and other
household items have fluorine in them somewhere.
The lightest gas known, hydrogen was used in lighter than air balloons.
As we learned from the Hindenburg, hydrogen combusts at any spark. When
this happens, the hydrogen combines with the oxygen in the air and makes
Hydrogen is the lightest element, and is by far the most abundant in
the universe. Even with its small weight, hydrogen takes up about 90% of
the universe in weight. Hydrogen, in the form of water, is essential to life
and is present in all organic compounds. The atomic symbol of hydrogen is H,
and its atomic number is 1. Its atomic weight is 1.00797 (7).|
In 1766, Henry Cavendish, the discoverer of nitrogen, discovered
hydrogen in London England. Its name came from the Greek words 'hydro"
meaning water and 'genes' meaning generator. Earlier, Robert Boyle
published a paper entitled: "New experiments touching the relation betwixt
flame and air'. This paper dealt with the reaction between iron fillings and
dilute acids, which release hydrogen. Deuterium gas (H2, often written D2),
made up from deuterium, a heacy isotope of hydrogen, was discovered in
1931 by Harold Urey, a chemistry professor at Chicago and California.
The many uses of hydrogen include the following: commercial fixation
of nitrogen from the air in the Haber ammonia process, hydrogenation of
fats and oils, methanol production, and hydrodealkylation, hydrocrackirg, and
hydrodesulphurization, rocket fuel, welding, production of hydrochloric acid,
reduction of metallic ores, filling balloons, and liquid H2 is important in
cryogenics and in the study of superconductivity since its melting point is
only just above absolute zero. One of hydrogen's isotopes, tritium (H3) is
radioactive. This is produced in nuclear reactors and is used in the hydrogen
bomb. It is also used as an agent in making luminous paints, and as a tracer
Hydrogen has many compounds, and its abundance brings out even
more. Hydrogen fluoride has a formula weight of 20.006, and hydrogen
chloride, or hydrochloric acid, has a formula weight of 36.461. Hydrogen
bromide's weight is 80.912, and hydrogen iodide sports a formula weight of
127.912. Water, or hydrogen oxide, weighs in at 18.015, and a similar
compound, hydrogen peroxide, is 34.015. Hydrogen in its gaseous state (H2)
sports a weight of 2.016. This diatomic state of hydrogen is the form it takes
when not in a compound.
Iron has been used through the ages. It is a "pre historic"
element. An iron pillar still stands in India from about 400 AD. It is
also one of the seven metals of alchemy; the others are gold, silver,
mercury, copper, lead and tin. The origin of its name is from the Anglo-
Saxon word "iren". It is probably one of the world's most important metals, with
the world consuming over 700 million tons a year. The human body it's
self contains about 6 milligrams as well. Iron is also a metal of alchemy,
of which the others are gold, silver, mercury, copper, lead, iron, and tin.
There is a lot of technical information on the element
iron. Its atomic number is 26. Its melting point is 1808 degrees Kelvin,
and its boiling point is 3023 degrees Kelvin. Its density at 300 degrees
Kelvin is 7.874. Its symbol is Fe. Its covalent radius is 1.17. Its
atomic radius is 1.26. Its atomic volume is 7.1. It is a crystalline
structure too. lt9s electro-negativity is 1.83, and its electrical
conductivity is 11.2.|
It is mainly used in alloys due to its reactivity. The most common alloy for it
to be found in is hematite, a magnetize able rock, of which the iron is
taken out with carbon. Another alloy is magnetite, which is commonly
seen as black sand alongside beaches, rivers, and lakes. Still, even
another alloy is taconite, which is becoming an increasing ore for
commercial uses. Even though the pure metal is rarely found used for
commercial uses. Common iron is a combination or mixture of four
isotopes, but six other isotopes are known to exist. Iron is commonly
used in compasses because it is easily magnetize able, along with nickel
and cobalt. Different alloys of iron are pig iron of which contains about
3% carbon along with a few other trace amount otherelements, and
is hard, brittle, and fairly fusible. It is also used to
produce steel and other alloys. Another alloy is the hard, carbon steel,
the corrosion resistant stainless steel, and the "ally" steel, or carbon
steel with other additives like nickel, chromium, and others.
This element was discovered by fractional distillation of
a mixture of the noble gases. Several compounds of Krypton were
discovered in 1962 and 1963. The symbol for Krypton is a capital K,
and a lower case r. The atomic number for Krypton is 36, it's atomic
weight is 83.3. The element Krypton has a boiling point of -241.6
degrees Fahrenheit, and it has a melting point of -251.14 degrees
Fahrenheit. Krypton belongs to the group eighteen of the periodic
table of elements. Krypton is used alone or with the elements Argon
and the element neon incandescent light bulbs. It emits a
characteristic bright, orange-red color in an electric discharge
tube; such tubes filled with Krypton are used in lighting airfields
because the red light is visible for long distances and
penetrates through fog and haze to a greater extent of
an ordinary light.
Krypton is colorless, odorless, and tasteless element. It is a noble,
or inert gas (one that will usually not combine with other elements).
Krypton exists in the air to the extent of one part in one million
by volume. The fission, or splitting, of atoms produces Uranium-235.
Its discoverers gave Krypton (Greek for "hidden") the name to it,
who were British scientists, Sir William Ramsay and Morris Travers,
in 1898. Krypton gives a brilliant, fog-piercing light in lamps used
for airport runways. It is also used in high-speed photographic lamps,
and is mixed with Argon to fill fluorescent lamps.|
The incandescent lamp consist of a filament of a material
with a high melting
Point sealed inside a glass bulb from which
the air has been evacuated, or which is filled
with an inert gas. Filaments with high melting points
must be used because the proportion increases, and the most
efficient light source is obtained at the highest filament temperature.
Carbon filaments were employed in the first practical
incandescent lamps, but modem lamps are universally made with
filaments of fine tungsten wire. The filament must be enclosed
in either a vacuum or an inert atmosphere. Using an inert gas
instead or a vacuum in incandescent lamps has the advantage of
slowing evaporation of the filament, thus making the life of the
incandescent lamp longer. Most modem incandescent lamps today are
filled with a mixture of Argon or Krypton and a small amount of Nitrogen.
Of light energy to heat energy radiated by the filament rises as
One of the founders, Sir William Ramsay, who was best known for his work in the isolation of
elemental gases from the atmosphere, lived from 1852-1916. Sir William Ramsay
was born in Glasgow, Scotland, and was educated at the universities of
Glasgow and Tubingen. He served as professor of Chemistry at the University
of Bristol from 1880 to 1887 and at the University of London from 1887 until
1913. He was awarded the 1904 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. In 1895 he became
the first to isolate Helium successfully from terrestrial sources. Ramsay
also discovered Argon, Neon, and Xenon, and he contributed to the discovery
that Helium is a product of the atomic disintegration of radium.
Credit to the discovery of lithium is generally given to Johann A.
Arfvedson in 1817. Chemically, lithium resembles sodium in itsbehavior.
Lithium is created by the electrolysis of a mixture of fused
lithium and potassium chloride. When expoused to air, lithium will
tarnish and corrode rapidly. Lithium must be stored in a liquid form
such as naphtha. Lithium ranks thirty-five in order of abundance of
the elements in the earth's crust. It does not occur in nature in a free
state, but in compounds which are widely distributed.
Lithium, symbol Li, is a silvery white, chemically reactive
metallic element. Lithium is the lightest weight of all metals. In group
one of the periodic table, lithium is one of the alkali metals. The
atomic number of lithium is 3.|
Lithium has many different uses. The metal is a deoxidizer and to
remove unwanted gases during the manufacture of nonferrouscastings.
Lithium vapor is used to prevent carbon dioxide and oxygen
from forming scale in furnaces in heat-treating steel. Some important
compounds of lithium include the hydroxide, used for bonding carbon
dioxide in the ventilator systems of spacecraft and submarines; and
the hydride, used to inflate lifeboats, and its heavy hydrogen
equivalent, used in making the hydrogen bomb. One of the most
important compounds, (and uses) of lithium is a lithium carbonate, a
common mineral used in the treatment of bipolar disorder and some
forms of depression. Artists, musicians, and writers have suffered
from mood swings caused by bipolar disorder. Many lives are ruined
by this disease; and without effective treatment the illness is
associated with and increased risk of suicide. Bipolar disorder is also
known as manic depressive illness. This is a serious brain disease
that causes extreme shifts in mood, energy, and functioning. It
affects approximately 2.3 million adult Americans, which is about 1.2
percent of the population. Men and women are equally open to getting
this disease. The disorder typically emerges in adolescence of early
adult hood. Cases of this disease occur rairly in childhood. Cycles, or episodes,
of depression, mania, or mixed manic and depressive symptoms
typically recur and may become more frequent, often disrupting work,
school, family, and social life. A variety of medications are used to
treat bipolar disorder. Lithium has long been used as a first ine of
treatment for the disorder. Approved for the treatment of acute mania
in 1970 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), lithium has
been an effective mood stabilizing for many people with bipolar
Uthium melts at about 181 degrees Celsius (about 358F)
and has a specific gravity of .53. The atomic weight of lithium is
Iridium, a chemical element, one of the platinum metals of
Group 8, of the periodic table. It is very dense and rare and is used in
platinum alloys. A precious, silver-white metal, it is hard and very brittle,
but it becomes ductile and can be worked at a white heat, from 1,200
degrees to 1,500 degrees Celsius. It is one of the densest terrestrial
substances. In the massive state the metal is practically unbreakable in
acids and is not attacked even by aquaregia. It can be dissolved in
concentrated hydrochloric acid in the presence of sodium perch lorate
at 125 degrees to 150 degrees Celsius.
The element was discovered in 1802 in the acid-insoluble residues
of platinum ores by the English chemist Smithson Tennant. The name
iridium, comes from the Greek word iris "rainbow", refers to the
various colors of its compounds. Natural iridium consists of a mixture
of two stable isotopes. The chemistry of iridium centers on the
oxidation state, though compounds of all states from 0 to 6 are known
with perhaps the exception of +2. Iridium-containing ores are found in
South Africa, Alaska, USA, as well as in Myonnor (Buram), Brarit,
Russia, and Australia. In the late 20th century South Africa was the
world's major producer of the element iridium.
Because of difficulties in preparation and fabrication, the pure
metal has few applications. lridium is mainly, used in the form of
platinum alloys. Platinum-itidium alloys (5 to 10 percent iridium) are
already workable metals that are much harder and stiffer, and also more
resistant to chemical attack than the soft pure platinum. Such alloys are
used for jewelry, pen points, surgical pens, and electrical contacts and
It has a face-centered cubic crystalline structure.
The atomic number is 77, the atomic weight is 192.2, the
melting point is 2,410 degrees Celsius, the boiling point is 4,527
ceases, the specific gravity is 22.4. Pure iridium probably does not occur in
nature; its abundance in the earth's crust is very low, about 0.001 parts
per mmbw. Though very rare, iridium does occur in natural alloys with
other platnium metals. Iridium generally is produced commercially along
with the other platinum metals as a by-product of nickel of copper
Magnesium is a very important element. Its atomic number is 12, its
atomic mass is 24.305, its chemical symbol is Mg. Magnesium is an Alkaline
Earth metal, which means that it is in family 2. Most life on earth depends on
chlorophyll, which is a magnesium compound that enables plants to make food.
This element is the 8th most abundant element on Earth. It makes up 2.5% of
the Earth's crust and it has 3 isotopes that occur naturally which are 24, 25, and
26. The 4 most important magnesium minerals are: brucite, dolomite, magnesite,
Sir Humphrey Davy announced in 1808 that he had isolated a new
element, magnesium, from the hitherto unknown magnesium oxide, which he
discovered. Antoine Bussy is credited for the discovery of this metal and isolated
larger and purer amounts in 1828.
Magnesium is also used in galvanic anode to
prevent corrosion in pipelines, storage tanks, the hulls of ships, home water
heaters, and oil tanks. Also, it is used as a source of light in some flashbulbs,
fireworks, and pyrotechnics; when divided, magnesium burns in the air with an
intense white light. It is used in incendiary bombs, the production of titanium -and
zirconium, catalyst in some organic chemical reactions, the manufacture of
copper and nickel alloys, and magnesium alloys are used as structural materials
for the fuselages of airplanes, guided missiles, electronic equipment, portable
tools, baseball catchers masks, snowshoes, skis, boats, horseshoes, luggage,
ladders, and racing cars. Magnesium is also made into a fine wire that burns so
bright, that it is used in some photographic flashes. This element is also used in
fireworks to produce brilliant white.
Magnesium is produced and divided in two separate ways. 20% of the magnesium
that is produced in the world is extracted from roasted
dolomite by thermal reduction. The other 80% is extracted from
seawater by the electrolytic method.
The biological significance of magnesium is very interesting. An average
adult contains25 grams of this element. It does many different things in
the body, and it is found in many different foods, such as: meats, cereals,
vegetables, and milk. An average adult ingests 300 milligrams of magnesium
each day. Also, kidneys regulate the amount of magnesium in the body;
overdoses of this element may result from failure of the kidneys, hormonal
disruption, or use of too much magnesium as a drug.
Magnesium is also found in many different compounds. Magnesium
carbonate is used as a filler for paper, in cosmetics, fire-resistant and insulating
materials, and for clarifying drinking water. Magnesium sulfate is marketed as
Epsom salts, which are used as laxatives. It is also used in medicine to treat
arthritis and to treat burns. This element is also used for the tanning of leather,
the dyeing of textiles, ceramics, explosives, and the manufacturing of matches.
Also, milk of magnesia is used as an antacid and as a laxative.
Magnesium is a very interesting element. The technical data is very
impressive. It is very neat to know the many properties of magnesium and to
know how it reacts with different things. It s also cool to see all that magnesium
is used for and how it can help us in our everyday life.