Animals of the arctic tundra
Some common resident animals found in the arctic tundra are lemmings, voles, weasels, hares, squirrels, ravens, willow ptarmigans, brown bears, snowy buntings, arctic foxes, snowy owls, arctic ground squirrels, and musk oxen. Many of these animals do not remain active during harsh winter months. Animals like ground squirrels and bears remain at a dormant state during the winter until the spring season. Musk oxen and lemmings are some of the few animals that remain active during the winter. Musk oxen are perfectly adapted to the tundra. They are small and stocky in stature, and have dark, thick fur to insulate their bodies. Their fur is so long and thick that when it snows or rains on the animal, the skin never gets wet. Lemmings survive using a different approach; they go underground. They dig networks of tunnels under the arctic tundra's soil and line each tunnel with grass to keep temperatures above freezing. Lemmings live underground fully active until spring. They can even bear young in mid winter.
Animals of the alpine tundra
Some residents of the alpine include: mountain goats, bull elk, pikas, pocket gophers, ptarmigans, voles, shrews, chinchillas, and in the Himalayas and the Tibetan plateau: argali and markhor (large sheep and goats with long horns). All of these animals are perfectly adapted to their environment. Two great examples of well adapted animals in the alpine tundra are mountain goats and pikas. Mountain goats eat grass, moss, and even lichen, together the most abundant type of food in the tundra. Because of their muscular legs and gripping toes with suction-cuplike pads, mountain goats can reach their food where other animals cannot. This makes it easy for them to find food, so they do not starve. Their thick shaggy fur also helps to keep them warm in the harsh winter months. In the summer, mountain goats shed their thick fur for a lighter, cooler coat. Smaller mammals, like the pika, make dens among boulders and rocks. These small chipmunk-like animals store food in their dens during the summer, so they will have plenty of food for the winter season. These creatures remain warm during the winter in their insulated dens.