Vegetation: Needleleaf, alder, coniferous trees, birch, broadleaf deciduous trees and shrubs, evergreen spruce, deciduous larch or tamarack fir, pine, boreal conifers, and aspen. In Scandinavia and western Russia the Scots pine is a common tree. In North America, only a few species of fir and spruce are dominant.
Growth: typical: needleleaf trees which are drought resistant and well adapted to the cold.
Evergreen habit - Leaves remain green during the winter, so that when temperatures rise in the spring and summer, plants can begin photosynthesis right away.
Dark color - An adaption of spruce and fir trees. Dark green needles allow more sun light and heat to be absorbed, so that the process of photosynthesis is accelerated.
Needleleaf - Include coniferous trees which have needles instead of leaves. Waxy coatings on needles prevents moisture from evaporating in drying winds. It also allows the tree to survive during hard hitting winter droughts, and prevent snow from collecting on them, which may cause the branches to break.