Triad Inversions |
Scale degree names |
Figured Bass |
Non-Harmonic Tones |
Passing Tones |
Neighboring Tones |
Escape Tones |
Changing Tone |
In figured bass the Arabic numerals represent the intervals that sound above a given bass part. Certain abbreviations have become well known.
Alterations from the given key signature are indicated by placing an accidental before the Arabic numeral.
An accidental, such as a sharp, flat, or natural that appears by itself under a bass note indicates a triad in root position with the third interval above the bass note sharped, flatted or naturaled.
Any sharp, flat, or natural sign beside the Arabic number indicates that this interval above the bass note should be sharped, flatted, or naturaled depending on the symbol.
Roman Numeral Analysis In the early 1800's, German composers started to use roman numerals to symbolize harmony. Each note in a scale can have a triad or chord built above it. Upper case (Major) and lower case (minor) Roman Numerals are used to indicate the type of chord. I, IV, V are major triads/chords, ii, iii, vi are minor triads/chords, and vii is diminished.
In the Perfect Authentic cadence both the dominant (V or V7) and tonic (I) chords are in root position, and the tonic note is in the upper voice of the final tonic chord. It is the most final sounding of all cadences.