Temperature is essential knowledge to all water-based industries as well as the fishing and water-based agriculture systems. The most common importance of water is when it is used as a solvent in commercially produced drinks and well as a cooling agent in power plants. The temperature has great implications on the environment. For examples, in the case of the temperature at which the cooling water of the power plant is released can determine the ability of the water to hold oxygen and as well as the ability of its inhabitants to protect themselves from pollutants.
The pH scales is a measurement of the potential ability of hydrogen ions to be released by a certain matter. From a scale of 0-14 with the lower half being acidic in nature and the upper half being basic in nature, pure water is at about a neutral 7 pH. However, in the current status it varies as per each nationís regulations. The amount of impurities or added minerals in the water can also result in a change of pH.
Specific conductance refers to the ability of the water sample to conduct an electrical current. This property is highly affected by the amount of and nature of the relevant solutes dissolved in the water sample. For example, mineral salts. Thus pure water, with very minimal solute dissolved has extremely low specific conductivity.
While rainwater and sea water have much higher conductivity due to the number of dissolved material in them.
The measurement of Specific conductance is useful way to gauge the amount of dissolved materials in a water sample.
Turbidity is the degree of cloudiness of a water sample. The measurement is obtained by passing a beam of light through the sample and calculating the refractive index and the degree of reflection off the particles. The cloudiness of a sample varies as per the amount of particles dissolved in it. Turbidity is measured in nephelometric turbidity units (NTU).
The amount of oxygen dissolved in water determines the level of biological lifeforms present in the source. Should it be present it acts as sustenance for various aquatic life forms such as zooplankton and fishes. The oxygen is required mainly for respiration by these organisms. The amount of oxygen dissolved in a particular water source varies as per climate (summer, autum, winter, spring). The more reduced the movement in the water source the less amount of dissolved oxygen. However, naturally the amount of water dissolved is normally 10-20 molecules of oxygen to a million of water.
The portions of minerals such as calcium and magnesium determine the degree of hardness of the water.
Hardness of water is crucial, as the relevant water processing equipment has to be tailored to suit it. Hard water can at times damage equipment. Hard water is also detrimental in the sense that fabric and cloth are easily causing colour fading or shortage the usage life span.