Plantation in USA
After one century and a half of the founding of the first permanent
settlement at Jamestown Virginia. The colonies grew economically and
culturally strong as a result the American and the British
interests became diverged.
The first shot was fired in 1775 but revolution had been in
the American's hearts and minds since a long time. Let's see what
provoked this thirst of freedom that lead to a revolutionary
England entered in a conflict with the French and the Indians
that lasted 7 years. After those years of struggle England wanted a
new imperial design that didn't suite to the colonies which
were demanding more and more freedom especially that the emergence
of the American citizen's concept appeared, hens the colons
did not consider themselves English no more. So, colons didn't
tolerate the interference of the English parliament with the
The English government starting its reforms within the colonies
issued dispositions such as the restriction of the colon's
movements to extend their boundaries toward the Mississippi river
although the population there grew up. The most serious factor that
animated the colons' rebellion is the empire's new financial policy.
Thereafter, they issued several acts such as:
replacement of the Molasses Act in 1733 which placed a tax on the
imports of rum and molasses from non-English areas with the sugar
Act of 1764 that forbad the importation of foreign rum, put a small
duty on molasses from all sources and levied duties on wine, silks,
coffee and other luxury items;
instauration of the Stamp Act, this act provided that revenue stamps
must be affixed to all pamphlets, broadsides, newspapers, licenses
or any other legal documents; These revenues would be used to
defend, protect and to secure the colonies;
Townshend Acts in 1767 ,relative to the name of its author Charles
Townshend the British Chancellor of the exchequer that time. It
provides the increasing of duties on goods (paper, glass, lead and
tea) exported from England to America. The taxes collected would be
affected to raise revenue to be used in part to support colonial
governors, judges, customs, officers and the British army in America
. Consequently, a lot of agitations occurred but less
violent that those manifested for the Stamp Act. The British
government, to maintain order in the colonies, sent its troops. The
presence of the British troops in Boston was a standing invitation
to disorder. On Marsh 5, 1770 a three Bostonians were killed by the
British soldiers, this incident was called " the Boston
Acts set by the parliament, the first of them the Boston Port Bill
which provided the closure of the Boston Port as a reaction of the destruction
of three British boats there, other enactments that prohibited most
town meetings held without a prior governmental consent, the
Quartering Acts which disposed to find suitable quarters for British
troops even in private homes if necessary etc.
didn't accept the interference of the British parliament with the
colonial government and didn't admit how the English parliament, in
which there is no representatives from America, can pass laws
for the colonies, as soon as the colonial (self-governing)
legislature had no right to pass laws for England.
Therefore, on September 5 , 1774 the colonial representatives met in
Philadelphia to discuss about the non satisfaction of the colonials.
Members of this meeting were known as the first Continental
Congress, every colony except Georgia has sent delegates to form a
total number of 55 delegates. The mission of the congress was the negotiation
with the British to avoid the Coercive Acts, to defend the
colonists' right to life, liberty and property and to guarantee the
The continental Congress formed later the Continental
Association, this association played a determinant role in the liberation
Soon after, on April 19, 1775 the first skirmishes began in the
village of Lexington , on May 15, 1775 the Continental Congress
voted to go to war with the British. Thereafter, the colonial militias
were gathered to serve the continental service. On the American
forces they appointed as commandant-in-chief Colonel George
On July 4, 1776 a formal declaration of independence was adopted, it
was mainly Thomas Jefferson's work. With this declaration they
announced the birth of a new nation. The declaration of independence
was based on the philosophy of human freedom according to the
Enlightenment Political Philosophy that would become a dynamic force
through the world.
Declaration of freedom
Through a series of battles that have been either transformed to
defeats or victories the Americans won their independence on October
19, 1781 and this independence was strengthened by the signature of
the treaty of Paris on September 3, 1783.
factors Helped the Americans to fulfill independence,
the determination of the Americans, and also the intellectual level
to which the colonials or some of them reached without the perseverance
of men like Samuel Adams, Benjamin Franklin, George
Washington, Thomas Jefferson and many others The United States of
nowadays wouldn't exist. We shouldn't pass without bringing up the
help that the French government brought to help the Americans even
though they didn't make it to glorify freedom but to weaken
England. So the French government started to send aid to the
colonies in May 1776, when it sent 14 ships with war supplies to America,
and on February 6, 1778, signed a Treaty of Amity and Commerce in
which France recognized America and offered it trade concessions.
And in July 1780 France's Louis XVI sent to America an expedition
force of 6.000 men under the Compte Jean de Rochamveau.
After the success of the revolution and on the invitation of
the Continental Congress each colony began to reconstruct its
government, to state a new constitution based on the
democratic ideas of the declaration of independence,
each constitution began with a bill of rights.
Most of the new colonies' bills of rights declared principles such
as popular sovereignty, rotation
in Office, freedom of elections,
and an enumeration of fundamental liberties like moderate bail and humane
punishment, freedom of the press and of conscience and the right the
majority to reform or alter the government. Moreover, all constitutions
paid allegation to the the three-branch structure of government
-executive, legislative and judiciary- each checked and balanced by
the others. However, state constitutions had some lack they didn't
guarantee to all the people their most fundamental natural
rights which is equality. As an example, Pennsylvania excluded their
slave population from their inalienable rights as human
beings. As well as women did not have the right to vote.
In 1781 all the stated ratified the Articles of Confederation, but
according to these articles the confederation established between
the colonies lacked authority to set up tariffs
when necessary, to organize commerce and to levy taxes. Soon after
every colony begun to move on its own way by designing their own
policies without taking into consideration the other colonies'
actions. Therefore, Many economic problems raised.
Other problems related to the expansion to the western lands
and to property of these lands. In this subject the colonies and the
Continental Congress decided to consider these territories as
common property to be placed by the congress into free states. When
these free states reached a population number of 60.000 free
inhabitants it was to be admitted to the union on an equal
footing with the original states with all respects.
To remedy to all these problems, in May 1787 at the Federal
Convention in the Philadelphia state house, delegates from all the
states, except the Rhode Island, gathered. Between them there
were George Washington from Virginia who was regarded as the
country's outstanding citizen, James Madison who is recognized today
as the father of the constitution of the U S A ; governor
Morris, Benjamin Franklin and James Wilson from Pennsylvania;
Rufus King and Elbridge Gerry from Massachusetts; Roger Sherman from
Connecticut; Alexander Hamilton from New York who has proposed the
meeting. Tow important men were absent from the convention Thomas
Jefferson who was serving in France as a minister and John Adams in
the same capacity in Great Britain. these men proceeded to set
aside the Articles of Confederation and to build a new form of
All delegates agreed that the new central government must have real supreme
power. the federal government is authorized to regulate
commerce, to fix weight & measures, to grant patents &
copyrights, to coin money, to raise & maintain an army & a
navy to declare war and to make peace...
The federal government consists of three equal and coordinate
branches legislative, executive and judicial. The three powers were
to be so harmoniously balanced that no one could ever
gain control. To set equality between the states, delegates
agreed that the legislative branch should consist of tow
houses the House of Representatives and the Senate, so
members of the House of Congress ( House of Representatives) are
elected proportionally to the population of the state and
elected members' number for the Senate is the same for all the
On September 17, 1787 after 16 weeks of deliberation the finished
Constitution was signed. But it took tow more years to ratify the
said constitution after ratifying 10 other amendments known as the
Bill of Rights which protects individual rights. Since the adoption
of the Bill of Rights only 16 more amendments have been added.
As a conclusion, the constitution was drafted to promote
individual liberty and public virtue and to act as a permanent
framework that will serve the American nation through the future as
the founding fathers wanted it to be.
on April 30, 1789 George Washington was elected unanimously the
first president of the united states. Thereafter the U S A set
itself on the road of political, economic and social development.
Soon the Congress created the departments of state and
treasury, a Supreme Court with one chief justice and
five associate justices, three circuit courts and 13 district
courts. Moreover, a secretary of war and an attorney general were
At that time immigration to the United States of America was growing
steadily and the westward expansion was on its way bringing new
fertile lands. Therefore, Policies of settlement were set to
organize this expansion. In addition, admission of new states such
as the Vermont in 1791, Kentucky in 1792,Tenesse in 1796.
The industrial revolution was advancing especially the textile
industry in New England and the Massachusetts.
Two big parties have been existed in America since that time the
Federalists and the Antifederalists (Republicans), the former is for
a strong central government the latter is for a decentralized agrarian
Since the mandate of George Washington the U S A had set up a
foreign policy that was based on a non permanent alliance with any
portion of the foreign world. Therefore, the U S A abrogated
the treaty of alliance of 1778 to not to see itself implicated in a
war with the European powers beside France, for the United Stated of
that time was a growing country that have to recover from the recent
wars it have done.
In 1803 under the Thomas Jefferson's mandate, the U S A
purchased the Louisiana from the Napoleonic France for
the sum of $15 Million, that act doubled the area of the country.
In 1812, during Madison's mandate, the U S A declared war to
the Great Britain to stop the oppression of the American ships by
the British navy. During this war the British Army burned the
House of the Federal government. The struggle lasted 2 years and
ended with the signature of a treaty of peace called the Treaty of Ghent
in December 1814.
There was a great rupture in American society of that time and it concerns
the expansion of slavery in the southern states working in the great
plantations of wheat and cotton.