histórica de los Parques Nacionales.
evolution of the National Parks.
creation of areas protected in the country overcomes its beginnings to the
year 1903, when doctor Francisco P. Moreno (Expert in the delimitation of
the South frontier agreed with Chile) carries out a donation of 3
square leagues (7.500 have) of lands of their property to the National
State, in the area of the current Park National Nahuel Huapi, with the
objective of maintaining their natural physiognomy and that the works that
are carried out are only those that facilitate comforts for the visitor's
life." It inspired their decision, the conscience that such natural
beauties, as those of the Southern Mountain range, they should be
preserved as public patrimony.
the year 1922, this expression of a great precursor crystallizes in the
creation of the first National Park, call Of the South", with a
surface of 785.000 there is. , under Hipólito Irigoyen's Presidency. Then
the same one will be constituted in the current Park National Nahuel
Huapi. In the creation ordinance settles down that inside their
limits it is forbidden the cut of trees, the slaughter of wild animals,
the alteration of the courses of water and all act that it can affect the
nature of the region." Years later, in 1928, the first Body of Guard
parks is constituted, with 7 keeps parks dedicated to that National
in the county of Missions, in 1909, they had been carried out for national
law the reservations of lands around the Waterfalls, going to a national
park. The creation of the National Park Iguazú newly was summed up in
1934. The architect paisajista Carlos Thays had carried out, for the
understood territory, the first creation project and classification of a
National Park in the country.
1934, be believed, for Law No.12.103, the Address (today Administration)
of National Parks and, simultaneously, the big parks of the South and the
Iguazú. With the purpose of protecting the biggest natural beauties in
the country -the lakes, forests and mountains of the Patagonia and the
waterfalls insert in the subtropical forest of Missions - begins
in that date the history of the Argentinean institutions dedicated to the
Conservation of the nature.
general lines, the initial politics of the organism is guided to the
statement of the territorial sovereignty and the regional development of
frontier areas and outlying, above all of the Patagonia, by means of the
impulse to the tourist activity, as main development motor and poblamiento
in harmony with the conservation of the natural areas (Bustillo,1968).
new -first organism of their type in Latin America -, it begins an
administration of vigorous impulse to the national and international
tourism in the created National Parks. They were carried out strong
investments of the State in infrastructure vial, of transports and hotel
in those outlying regions that only 50 years before they speak indigenous
domain. National parks were pioneer in the region of the Southern Mountain
range, not only as for tourist development -with center in the city of
Bariloche - but I eat organism settler, also founding schools, churches,
hospitals and other elementary public services. Creó new tourist
villages, as Llao-Llao, Cathedral, The Narrowness and Traful.
the decades of 1940 and 50, during President Perón's governments,
consolidated the National Parks already constituted and without abandoning
the tourist function and of defense of the sovereignty, the concern was
developed by the naturalistic investigations. These they concentrated
above all on studies of the vegetation of the Parks, carried out for
important botanical that acted in the Institution.
conservation objectives had been until then to safeguard as patrimony
public exceptional scenic values in the world, for enjoyment of the
society (that the forests of the South and the Waterfalls of Iguazú were
the biggest exponents in it, it is demonstrated in the fact that any other
natural, protected place or not, it ended up equaling the attractiveness
that these maintain, still today, for the national and world tourism).
begins on the other hand now to be appreciated the scientific value of the
conservation of the flora and the fauna, accompanying the development of
the Natural Sciences in the country, in particular, the studies of the
flora and the Argentinean fauna that it was outstanding precursors' merit,
as Gallant Ángel, L. Haumann, Ángel Cabrera, Lorenzo Parodi, Lucas
Tortorelli and several others. These advances in the knowledge of the rich
Biogeografía Argentina gave impulse seemingly to the conscience
conservacionista to maintain certain protected natural spaces, like
pristine sample of each certain region. It is gestated this way the
approach that the National Parks should represent portions of all the
natural regions of the country.
these decades they date the first National Parks whose scenic
attractiveness is not the main purpose of its creation, as Laguna Blanca,
Río Pilcomayo, Chaco and the Monument Natural Petrified Forests.
1967 the School of Guard parks is believed, in the Isla Victoria in the
Lago Nahuel Huapi that from then on formed the first professionals in the
matter, in the whole Latin American Continent.
1970 a new law of National Parks is dictated (Ordinance-law 18.594) that
establishes a diferenciación of categories for the first time among the
national protected areas: the National Parks, Natural Monuments and
National Reservations settle down, with different objectives and
conservation norms, taking charge to the application authority its
delimitation in the land.
is tried this way to delimit the occupation and human activities to
certain areas, the National Reservations, and to preserve in strict form
the properly this areas of National Park.
that year they were already 14 the conservation units that occupied in
total 2,4 million hectares. But seven of them, added (150.000 have) 6% of
the total, they covered other natural regions apart from the Bosques Patagónicos.
That is to say: the protected areas of the Argentina were, still in 1970,
the national parks of the South and, in the other regions, some few and
small new national parks.
provincial governments didn't still have, for then, autonomous initiatives
of creation of protected areas. This associates to the fact that the
natural spaces of more attractiveness were located in National Territories
that newly were constituted in autonomous states around the year 1960.
the provincialización of the National Territories, the intense
colonization and delivery of lands to matters in the new counties, they
spread to limit the process of expansion of the national protected areas.
The initiative of creation of AP is assumed in its biggest part by the
provincial governments, for its own bill and to a high rhythm of decision,
but with little technical and economic capacity, like it will be seen
1980 the Law 22.351 is sanctioned, of National Parks, Natural Monuments
and National Reservations, effective until today.
national organism begins around 1985 a strategy that impels a bigger
participation of the local communities and the provincial governments in
the administration of the Parks, and in the planning of its handling;
ordination plans and support begin to the activities of the residents.
Lastly, the formation is impelled, in 1986, of the National Net of
Technical Cooperation in Protected Areas, as federal instance of
coordination, technical support and planning for a National System of
Protected Areas whose legal conformation is still in discussion.
synthesis, different periods can be recognized in the history of the
their course the objectives were varying, from aesthetic purposes and of
development, until the concern that is manifested worldwide, starting from
the decade of the 70, in front of a technological development with rhythms
unbridled in their capacity of alteration of the terrestrial bark. These
stages can be defined as the following ones:
Stage: of the big precursors as Francisco P. Moreno and Carlos Thays and
the first steps of institutional organization that it culminates in 1934
with the sanction of the Law of National Parks and the creation of the
competent organism, the Address of National Parks.
value of the same one constitutes it the fact that Argentina is the first
country of Latin America in beginning the process of creation of protected
Stage: Understands the period between 1934 and 1945, approximately
that is that of the constitution of the traditional National Parks of the
country: Nahuel Huapi, Iguazú, Lanín, The Larches, Perito Moreno and The
Glaciers. Shows the scenic value of certain natural landscapes
(Lakes of the Southern Mountain range, Glaciar Perito Moreno, Waterfalls
of the Iguazú) and affirms it to him with the creation of the
referred Parks. This way insured the conservation of such natural
environments, occurs great impulse to the national and foreign tourism,
with strong investments in infrastructure vial, urban, hotel and of
services, and, in a second level, to the forest activity; it, with a view
to the located poblamiento, the regional development and the consolidation
of the border territories.
Stage: extends up to 1960, approximately. Without neglecting the
tourist promotion of the first ones, new National Parks are believed in
regions without important scenic attractiveness, with the innovative
approach of protecting representative samples of the whole Argentinean
Biogeografía: The King, Río Pilcomayo, Petrified Forests and Chaco.
tourism in the Parks is popularized like part of Government's social
Stage: During the decades of 60 70, with the regional development and the
advance of the infrastructure vial, in the outlying regions of the
country, it seems to grow the conscience to preserve pristine samples and,
inside the areas already protected, to delimit the human activity to
certain land portions. The Parks National Earth of the Fire are believed,
The Palmar, the National Reservation Formosa, Lago Puelo, Baritú, Lihué
Calel, and the Monument Natural Lagoon of the Pozuelos and Calilegua. They
notice, for Ordinance-law 18.594 of 1970, different handling categories
inside the National Parks, some strict other ,y not strict.
1980 a new Law of National Parks is sanctioned, Not. 22.351 that it is at
the present time the effective one. .
the other hand, in this stage it is tried to endow from a bigger technical
capacity to the administrating organism and puts on the accent in
the investigation activities and environmental education (you grant a
scholarship internal and systems of university voluntariado).
stage: begins in 1986 with the creation of the National Net of
Protected Areas, for impulse of the National Organism, looking for to
establish certain coordination with and among the systems of AP
in the current decade, they were created by presidential Ordinance
No.2149/90, three strict natural reservations in fiscal lands of the
Nation: Colonia Benitez, in Chaco; San Antonio, in Missions; Otamendi, in
Buenos Aires; separated, two new National Parks: Diamond (or The Roof) in
Among Rivers, and Sierra of the Jaws, in San Luis. Other three more -the
Cardones, of it Jumps; The Leoncito, in San Juan; and Mburucuyá, of
Currents - they begin creation steps, to the present still in march.
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