|Notes: Plants Nonvascular|
As their name indicates, they lack vascular tissue and need the presence of water to reproduce. NV (nonvascular) plants have 2 adaptations making the land home: a waxy cuticle and the embryophyte condition with flagellated sperm. For reproduction a dew is sufficient. They must absorb water from the soil like a sponge. Absorption occurs due to 3 processes: diffusion, capillary action and cytoplasmic streaming. NV plants have no woody tissue and must spread horizontally (the tallest is usually no more than 20 centimeters).
These grow tightly together to hold each other up. Bryophytes grip substrates with elongated cells and filaments called rhizoids. All similarities in structure between mosses and vascular plants are merely analogous. The dominant generation is the haploid gametophyte whereas the smaller and shorter-lived sporophyte must rely on the gametophyte for water and nutrients.
Some are divided into lobes. Coil-shaped cells exist inside some sporangia. These cells act like tiny springs, propelling gemmae out of the opened capsule. Gemmae are bundles of cells and the propulsion is caused by a raindrop touching the capsule. This is asexual reproduction.
These look like liverworts but their sporophytes are longer. Capsules grow like horns rising from the mat of Anthocerophytes. Their photosynthetic cells have only one chloroplast as opposed to many per cell.
Next: "Plants: Seedless."