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A decrease in the number of red cells and, therefore, the hemoglobin
concentration of the blood. This results in decreased ability
of the blood to carry oxygen. Severe anemia can cause a pale
complexion, weakness, fatigue, and shortness of breath on exertion.
Proteins that are made by B lymphocytes in response to foreign
substances called antigens. For example, infectious agents like
viruses or bacteria cause lymphocytes to make antibodies against
them. In some case, the antibodies are protective and prevent
a second infection. These antibodies can be used to identify
specific cells and improve the classification of leukemia or
This laboratory procedure can identify antibodies on the surface
of red cells of platelets. Patients with chronic lymphocytic
leukemia and other lymphocytic malignancies may make antibodies
to their own red cells or platelets. (auto or self-directed
antibodies). These autoantibodies may lead to anemia of low
platelet counts. The antiglobulin test can be used to recognize
the presence of autoantibodies on blood cells.
The process of removing components of a donor's blood and returning
the unneeded parts to the donor. This process makes it possible
to remove desired elements from large volumes of blood. Platelets,
red cells, white cells, or plasma can be removed separately.
Marrow (Stem Cell) Infusion-This
technique, often referred to as transplantation, involves the
harvesting of a patient's marrow of blood. The stem cells are
usually frozen for later use. The patient is then given intensive
therapy, and the stem cells are reinfused via an indwelling
catheter. The blood of marrow may be obtained from a patient
with a disease of the marrow ( for example, acute myelogenous
leukemia) when in remission or when the marrow is not overtly
abnormal ( for example, lymphoma requiring intensive therapy).
The purpose of the procedure is to restore blood cell production
from the preserved and reinfused stem cells after intensive
therapy has severely damaged the patient's remaining marrow.
A type of white blood cell that participates in certain allergic
The staining of chromosomes with dyes that bring out or highlight
bands or regions on the chromosome. The bands give the chromosomes
more specific features, allowing individual distinctions to
be made among them. This technique permits more precise identification
of each of the 23 pairs of chromosomes.
This term refers to the earliest marrow cells identified by
the light microscope. Blasts represent about 1 percent of normally
developing marrow cells. They are largely myeloblasts, which
are cells that will develop into neutrophils. In the acute leukemia,
blast cells similar in appearance to normal blast cells accumulate
in large numbers, perhaps up to 80% of all marrow cells.
The bones are hollow and their central cavity is occupied by
marrow. After puberty, marrow is most active in blood cell formation.
The use of chemicals to kill malignant cells. Side effects of
chemotherapy are mouth sores, diarrhea, rashes, and hair loss.
All normal human cells with a nucleus contain 46 structures
called chromosomes. The genes are the principal structures that
make up the chromosomes. The X and Y chromosomes determine our
sex and are referred to as the sex chromosomes.
A population of cells derived from a single primitive cell.
The cancers is the total accumulation of cells that grow from
the single mutated cell.
Samples of body fluid such as sputum, blood, urine, and swabs
of the inside of the nose and throat, as well as rectum, use
to determine the principal site of an infection.
The term designates an intensive, clustered period of chemotherapy.
A treatment may be given for several days or weeks and represents
one cycle. The treatment plan may call for two, three, or more
The process of analyzing the number and shape of the chromosomes
of cells. The individual who prepares, examines, and interprets
the number and shape of chromosomes in cells is called a cytogeneticist.
These are cell derived substance that are secreted by various
types of cells and act on other cells to stimulate or inhibit
their function. Cytokines that stimulate cell growth are sometimes
referred to as "growth factors."
The process by which stem cells transform from cells without
specific characteristics into cells of a single blood cell line.
The red cells, platelets, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils,
basophils, or lymphocytpes are formed by this process.
A type of white blood cell that participates in allergic reactions
and helps to fight certain parasitic infections.
A synonym for red cells.
A type of white blood cells that has a large number of prominent
granules in the cell body. Other blood cells have fewer granules.
Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils are types of granulocytes.
A physician who specializes in the treatment of blood cell diseases.
This person is either an internist, who treats adult, or a pediatrician,
who treats children.
This term describes the process of blood cell development in
the marrow. It is a continuous process that is active normally
The term used to indicate enlargement of the liver.
The edge of the hip bone from which marrow is usually sampled
for diagnosis of blood cell diseases.
The systematic arrangement of the 46 human chromosomes of a
cell in 23 matched pairs by length from longest to shortest
and other features.
A synonum for white blood cells.
A decrease below normal in the number of blood leukocytes.
Small structures that contain large numbers of lymphocytes;
they are connected with each other by small channels called
lymphatics. These nodes are distributed throughout the body.
A type of white blood cell that participates in the body's immune
The process by which a single cell divides into two cells. This
process is also referred to as cell division, cell replication,
or cell growth.
A type of white blood cell that assists in fighting infection.
The macrophage is the monocytes in action and can combat infection
in the tissues, or can serve other functions such as ingesting
A characteristic of cells that makes them resistant simultaneously
to the effects of several different classes of drugs.
An alteration in a gene that results from a change (injury)
to the DNA in a cell.
A decrease below normal in the number of blood neutrophils,
a type of white blood cell.
The principal phagocyte cell in the blood. This blood cell is
the main cell that combats infections.
A mutated gene that is the cause of a cancer.
A decrease below normal in the number of the three major blood
cell types: red cells, white cells, and platelets.
Pinhead-sized sites of bleeding in the skin. This type of bleeding
results from a low platelet count. They disappear gradually
when the platelet count increases.
Cells that readily eat microorganisms like bacteria or fungi
and can kill them as a means of protecting the body against
Small cell fragments that stick to the site of blood vessel
injury, aggregated with each other, and seal off the injured
blood vessel to stop bleeding.
The transfusion of donor platelets is frequently needed to support
patients treated for acute leukemia. The platelets are collected
Chain Reaction (PCR)-
A technique to expand trace amounts of DNA or RNA so that the
specific type of the DNA or RNA can be determined.
Blood cells that contain hemoglobin, which binds oxygen and
carries it to the tissues of the body. The red cells make up
about 45 percent of the volume of the blood in healthy individuals.
A return of the disease after it has been in remission following
Acomplete disappearance of a disease, usually as a result of
The ability of cells to live and divide despite their exposure
to a drug that ordinary kills cells or inhibits their growth.
This is the cause of refractory malignant disease, whereby a
proportion of malignant cells resist the damaging effects of
a drug or drugs.
The alteration of a gene in the cells of a specific tissue causing
the gene to become a cancer-causing gene or oncogene.
An organ in the left upper portion of the abdomen just under
the left side of the diaphragm. It is often affected in leukemia,
especially the lymphocytic leukemias, lymphoma, and Hodgkin's
disease. Enlargement of the spleen is referred to as "splenomegaly."
Removal of the spleen by surgery is referred to as "splenectomy."
Removal of the spleen can be done without ill effect since its
function can be performed by other organs such as the lymph
nodes and liver.
These are primiive cells in marrow that are important inmaking
red blood cells, white blood cellsm and platelets. Generally,
the stem cells are found largely in the marrowm but some leave
the marrow and circulate in the blood.The stem cells in blood
can be collected, preserved by freezing and, later, thaqed and
used for therapy.
This is a thchnique which was developed to restore the moarrow
of patients who had lethal injury to that site. Such injury
can occur because of primary marrow failur, destruction of marrow
by disease, of intensive chemical of radiation exposures. AS
first designated, the source of the reansplant was the marrow
of a healthy donow who had the same tissue type (HLS type) as
the patient. Usually, the source was a brother of sister.
The curative treatment of leukemia, lymphoma, or myeloma is
thought of in different phases. Induction therapy refers to
the methods used to destroy visible leukemia cells in blod and
marrow so as to favor a remission, which results in return of
normal blood cells. Consolidation therapy refers to the additional
treatment given after remission is induced. Often, high doses
of drugs are used in several short periods of treatment. The
goal is to further decrease the concentration of residual leukemia
cells. The greater the reduction in leukemia cells, the higher
the probability that natural defenses will suppress the sesease
and result in a long-term remission.
A decrease below normal in the number of the blood platelets.
Suppressor Gene (antioncogene)-
A gene that acts to prevent cell growth.If a mutation ocurs
in this gene, it may make the individual more susceptible to
the development of cancer in the tissue in which the mutation
A synonym for leukocytes, There are five types of white blood
cells: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes.