Processor - It is used as the central control center for the computer. Data goes through the bus unit of the processor. Then the data is stored in the data cache while the fetch unit of processor is searching for the code needed for the task from either the instruction cache or the main memory. Once the code is obtained, the decode unit will send the data to the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) for calculation. The results will be sent to the register unit ready to depart from the processor through the bus unit when signals are given for the departure.
RAM - The data being sent to the RAM is being transferred as electrical pulses. These pulses search through the address lines (metallic substances etched on the sicilon chip) and fill in the proper transistors within the RAM. When a transistor is conducting, it represents an on signal or 1 in binary code. When the data is needed from the processor, another set of electrical pulses will be sent to retrieve electrical pulses from the transistors.
ROM - A memory chip that is used to store data in read only form. Once the electrical pulses are charged within the chip, there is not other way to discharge. ROM contains programs that are used to check the PC for any errors when it's turned on before starting the operating system.
Transistor - Transistor either captures/frees electrical pulses inside a chip. When it's conducting, it represents a 1 in the binary code. When it's off, then it's 0.
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