Por la cerveza de malto de James Harvey (difunta). Este material ahora está en el public domain. La colección completa de escritura de Sr. Stout's está en http://www.james-harvey-stout.com . (# s 16, 17 y 18 no es sido autor por Sr. Stout)
Salte a los asuntos siguientes:
Cuál es mitología? Es una colección ordenada de las historias (es decir, " mitos ") por las cuales explicamos nuestra creencia y nuestra historia. Debajo de las historia-líneas, los mitos enfrentan generalmente ediciones importantes tales como el origen de la humanidad y de sus tradiciones, y la manera de la cual los mundos naturales y humanos funcionan en un nivel profundo, universal. Otros mitos, sin embargo, se parecen simplemente narrar las actividades diarias de los deities -- sus asuntos y placeres del amante, sus celos y rabia, sus ambiciones y esquemas, y sus peleas y batallas.
Mitos, leyendas, folktales, y fables. Utilizamos comúnmente el mito " de la palabra " alternativamente con los términos siguientes, pero algunas autoridades han hecho las distinciones (que, como muchas definiciones, no pudieron ser válidas en todos los casos):
La mitología responde a muchos propósitos.
Hay varios tipos de mitos.
Hemos tenido deities para muchos aspectos de la vida. Este libro contiene docenas de clasificaciones, pero eso es solamente un porcentaje pequeño. Los egipcios tenían más de 2.000 deities; el Hindus tiene 333 millones. Deities ha gobernado virtualmente cada actividad, objeto, y emoción posibles. Además de las amplias categorías (e.g., guerra o el mar), hemos tenido deities para los items individuales; por ejemplo, los irlandeses honraron a la diosa de los ríos (Boann) y a la diosa del río de Lagan (Logia). Ha habido deities para las ciudades individuales (Athena para Atenas), las montañas (Gauri-Sankar para el montaje Everest), los lagos, las tribus, las especies de la planta, los templos, las constelaciones, las partes del cuerpo, el etc. En algunas culturas, cada hogar poseyó su propio deity, para suplir a la diosa " del hogar (quién " de la cultura fue nombrada Hestia en la religión griega). Deities gobernó no solamente fenómenos importantes tales como agricultura o amante o el sol, pero también las materias tales del campo común como el ocio, reptiles, la estufa de la cocina, guitarras, burlándose, la nariz, política, prostitución, cantando, burlesque, puertas, virginity, willpower, petardos, jugando, hace frente a la crema, embriaguez, y el tocador.
" El dios " es diferente de dioses y las diosas mythological. En mitología, los dieties no son como el deity monotheistic de la religión occidental. (Hinduism tiene su deity quasi-monotheistic -- Brahman -- pero también tiene millones de pocos deities.) Los deities de Mythological no eran omniscientes, omnipotent, u omnipresent. Como la gente, fueron vistos según lo limitados, estropeados, y haber conducido por emociones y las ambiciones; su diferencia principal de seres humanos era que tenían más conocimiento y potencia. ***TRANSLATION ENDS HERE***
Ancient myths live in our culture. We find references to those myths in many contemporary words and expressions, such as Pandora's box, Oedipus complex, nymph, and olympian. Other words derived from mythology include adonis (from Adonis), aurora (from Aurora), chlorophyll (from Chloris), chronology (from Kronos), discipline (from Disciplina), discord (from Discordia), eros (from Eros), fate (from Fate), fauna (from Faunus), fidelity (from Fides), flora (from Flora), fortune (from Fortuna), fraud (from Fraus), Hades (from Hades), Hell (from Hel), hygiene (from Hygieia), jovial (from Jove), liberty (from Libertas), lunar (from Luna), morphine (from Morpheus), mortality (from Mors), mute (from Muta), narcissism (from Narcissus), nemesis (from Nemesis), ocean (from Oceanus), -- and the names of the planets, and some of the months (including Janus for January), etc. Mars (the Roman war god) is remembered in words such as Mars (the planet), March (the month), and martial (as in martial arts).
Our modern society has its own myths. Some authors say that our society lacks a vigorous mythology; they believe that this lack can cause a sense of meaninglessness, estrangement, rootlessness, and the cold brittleness of a life devoid of reverence and awe. Other authors assert that we do have a mythology -- in certain concepts (such as "progress ") and in our larger-than-life celebrities (e.g., Mother Teresa as the goddess of compassion, Albert Einstein as the god of the intellect and the imagination, and Bill Gates as the god of commerce). "Screen goddesses Marilyn Monroe and Madonna incarnate the alluring qualities of Aphrodite. Aristotle Onassis expressed the wheeling-and-dealing Zeus qualities that built a shipping empire, while Muhammad Ali called on the aggressive instinct of Ares, the god of war, every time he stepped into the boxing ring. " ( As Above So Below , copyright 1992 by New Age Journal .) The media enlarges certain people to mythical proportions, and we each do the same (often by projecting the "Hero " archetype onto other people). Corporations have a mythology, in their "corporate culture. " There is a mythology in every group -- our social club, our family, our profession, our subculture, our ethnic group, our religion and denomination, our city, our neighborhood, our friendships, etc. Our mythology changes as our culture changes -- from one generation to the next, from one presidential administration to the next, from one decade to the next.
We each have our own mythology. Consciously or unconsciously, we create our own myths. We have our deities -- the things which are important and valued and vibrant to us personally. We are heroes in "mythic journeys " by which we romanticize our various passages through life. Although we generally accept cultural myths to the extent to which we are a part of our culture, the truly satisfying and exciting myths are those which arise from our own passions, our own dreams, and our own visions.
Similar myths exist in every culture. The myths have different characters and different plot-lines, but we do find some common themes. Some of the recurring themes include a Golden Age, a fall from a heavenly state, resurrections from death, virgin births, worldwide floods, creation stories in which "one becomes two, " and a future apocalypse. When Carl Jung examined the commonalities of myths, he developed his theory of archetypes, which are universal forces which influence us to manifest their particular trait.
Myths are metaphorical. Some people regard myths as mere fabrications, to be discarded in our enlightened age. Those people are repelled by the myths' preposterous elements (such as centaurs) and contradictions (within an individual myth, or in its revisions from one oral transmission to the next). But mythology's enduring worth is not in its possible historical or scientific accuracy; instead, myths are important because they are metaphors. We learn about life and people and values in a way which cannot be offered by dry historical or philosophical accounts; in mythology, we learn through imagination, as we feel and visualize the colorful adventures of the deities. Although mythology is not a literal rendering of a culture's history, we can still use myths to explore the culture -- its viewpoints, activities, and beliefs.
Myths represent forces in the psyche and the world. As Joseph Campbell said, in An Open Life , "The imagery of mythology is symbolic of spiritual powers within us. " In this symbolism, we see mythological characters who represent love, youth, death, wealth, virility, fear, evil, and other archetypal facets of life -- and we also see natural events such as rain and wind. The deities are personifications of those facets, those "energies. " As we read about the interplay of deities, we are viewing a dream-like fantasy which portrays the interaction of the elements of our own lives. To say that the deities are symbolic is not to say that they might not exist as actual beings; after all, some contemporary people believe in a deity which is an individual "person " (portrayed in art as an old man), so we might grant equal respect and open-mindedness toward those who have believed in the literal reality of ancient deities.
Mythology is a valid way to look at the world. Even if we respect the archetypal significance of mythology, we might disregard myths as primitive, clumsy attempts to express those psychological truths. But some authors have argued that mythology is actually a sophisticated means of labeling and studying psychological dynamics -- a means which is as cultured and insightful as that of modern psychology. Surely some myths were concocted by soma-intoxicated shamans, but perhaps others were devised by thoughtful scholars and mystics who intentionally chose mythology as a vehicle for passing on their revelations. These sages might have realized that myths are:
Can we use mythology in psychology? Although we might include mythology within psychology, we would surely not abandon psychology's scientific approach for the stories and practices of traditional mythology. (I, for one, would feel silly burning incense to Apollo.) But the idea of a "mytho-psychology " is intriguing. We can envision the advice given by a Roman priest in a counseling session with a person who, for instance, was experiencing problems due to a lack of self-discipline.
Why do we mythologize? We do it to acquire the benefits which have been described throughout this chapter. But, beyond the pragmatic reasons, we do it to satisfy our natural, healthy craving to live in a world which is still filled with mystery and wonder and archetypal grandeur.
Note : There is another text that is offered in this version of the site only. It is a paper by John Fiske titled "Myths and Myth-Makers Old Tales and Superstitions Interpreted by Comparative Mythology ". However, the text is extremely lengthy and is offered only in .txt format. The length of this text is approximately 70-80 pages in Times New Roman size 10 font. Although the text is extremely lengthy, it is loaded with information and may prove helpful to you. Its contents include:
I. THE ORIGINS OF FOLK-LORE
II. THE DESCENT OF FIRE
III. WEREWOLVES AND SWAN-MAIDENS
IV. LIGHT AND DARKNESS
V. MYTHS OF THE BARBARIC WORLD
VI. JUVENTUS MUNDI
VII. THE PRIMEVAL GHOST-WORLD
Click here to go to the text "Myths and Myth-Makers Old Tales and Superstitions Interpreted by Comparative Mythology ".