Disease until the 1920's (1921)
In 1921, two researchers from Canada,
Frederick Grant Banting (1891 - 1941) and Charles Herbert Best
(1899 - 1978), made an incredible discovery - insulin. This
hormone is very important because it regulates blood sugar levels
in the human body. Persons suffering from diabetes are unable
to maintain safe levels and are at risk of comas and death.
After the discovery of insulin, however, it was found that injections
of the hormone and a well-controlled diet could help people
to lead a regular lifestyle.
Banting was later knighted in 1934
and became Sir Frederick Grant Banting. Sadly, on his way to
England in 1941, he was killed in a plane crash.
Einstein is Awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics (1921)
Albert Einstein (1879 - 1955) was
born on March 14, 1879, in Germany. In 1905, Einstein published
his theory of relativity in "On the Electrodynamics of Moving
Bodies." Among his other publications included The Meaning
of Relativity. His research eventually earned him worldwide
fame and a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921.
Despite the fact that he was born
in Germany, he woulSd not stay in his mother country forever.
Einstein, who was a patent clerk and Jewish, immigrated to the
U.S. in 1933 after Adolf Hitler seized control of Germany. In
the U.S. he taught at Princeton University in New Jersey. In
1939, Einstein helped to inform Franklin Roosevelt, then President
of the U.S., that Germany was possibly creating atomic weapons.
The Advisory Committee on Uranium was created and the Manhattan
Project, as the plan to develop atomic bombs was code-named,
went into effect.
|In 1922, two American
scientists, Dr. Herbert McLean Evans and K.S. Bishop discovered
vitamin E (named by Evans). This discovery was an important one.
Vitamin E serves as an antioxidant and is found in foods such
as margarine, peanut oil, sunflower seeds, walnuts, and several
others. It protects body tissue and polyunsaturated fats from
oxidation. Gladys Anderson Emerson (1903 - 1984), another American
scientist, would later go on to isolate the vitamin in pure form.
Tomb is Found (1922)
|On November 4, 1922,
an English archaeologist and Egyptologist named Howard Carter
(1873-1939) and Egyptologist George Herbert (Lord Carnarvon) found
the long-sought grave of Tutankhamen or Tutankhamun (1343 - 1325
B.C.) The body of the 18-year old king and his treasure were uncovered
after more than 3000 years. Popularly known as the "boy-king"
or "King Tut," Tutankhamen is believed to have become king at
age eight or nine.
|The Arrival of
the Baby Austin (1922)
|Herbert Austin (1866
- 1941) was born in England on November 8, 1866. His credits include
creating the first Wolseley motor car (1895) and the Austin Motor
Company (1905). In 1922, Austin introduced the Austin Seven in
Great Britain. The "Baby Austin," as it was nicknamed, allowed
several consumers who were previously unable to afford cars to
buy one. The car featured four cylinders, a three-speed gearbox,
and seated four. Five years prior to his death, Austin gave Lord
Rutherford of the Cavendish Laboratory £250,000 for scientific
research. Austin died on May 23, 1941.
|The British Broadcasting
Company (BBC) is Created (1922)
|In October of 1922,
the British Broadcasting Company (BBC) was created for the public.
Because promotions were restricted, money was earned from people
who purchased annual wireless licenses. In December of 1926, the
BBC became a public corporation after receiving a Royal Charter.
The first television broadcast to the public was made by this
company in 1929. The BBC has had world-wide influence on radio
and television and is still active today.
in Immunization (1923)
|The medical field added
another accomplishment to its existence during the 1920's. Diphtheria,
caused by bacteria, became better controlled in 1923 by newly
introduced immunization. Within a year, Albert Calmette and Camille
Guerin of France would create Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG),
a vaccine against TB.
and Frozen Food (1925)
Clarence Birdseye (1886 - 1956),
a naturalist, developed a way of freezing food while maintaining
its flavor and nutritional benefits. The frozen foods, packaged
in rectangular-shaped containers, became quite handy.
He came upon his discovery while
working near the Arctic for the American government. Birdseye
found that immediately frozen meat kept its flavor. Creating
a business in 1922, Birdseye Seafoods, Inc., he further improved
his discovery. His new findings were used to create another
company, the General Seafood Corporation. Despite Birdseye's
death on October 8, 1956, Birds Eye remained in business and
is still functioning today.
During the 1920's, a courtroom
case in the United States changed the public's view of Charles
Darwin's theory of evolution forever. This particular trial
would also be the first-ever to be broadcast live on radio.
In 1925, a Tennessee biology teacher
named John Thomas Scopes was put on trial for teaching evolution.
In the previous two years, Tennessee had been among several
states in the U.S. to have fundamentalists propose laws to make
teaching evolution illegal. The American Civil Liberties Union,
with Clarence Seward Darrow (1857 - 1938) as its lawyer decided
to defend Scopes. On the opposing side, William Jennings Bryan
fought for Tennessee and against evolution in the classroom.
Despite the fact that Scopes eventually lost a trial that he
never testified at and was charged $100.00, Darrow was seen
as the superior lawyer. Bryan, a three-time presidential candidate
was humiliated and outsmarted. Only five days after the trial
had ended, Bryan passed away. The outcome of the "Monkey Trial"
was later changed; a technicality was found.
|John Baird Introduces
His Television (1926)
John Logie Baird (1888 – 1946),
a Scottish engineer, held several jobs throughout his lifetime:
shoe shiner, salesman, and electrical engineer. His most appreciated
accomplishment, however, is not a clean shoe. It is the Baird
Televisor: the first working system of television. While developing
his invention, the founder of the Television Development Company
became a pioneer when he transmitted the image of a boy in action.
In 1926, Baird displayed his breakthrough creation in London
at the Royal Institution. Within two years, he would also become
the first person to transmit images to and from London and New
York. These were not the Scot’s only contributions, however.
He also created the stereoscopic television, electrical recordings
(of images), and the color television.
The first American to transmit
pictures of a moving object was Charles Francis Jenkins. He
accomplished this feat in 1927.
is Discovered (1928)
In the summer of 1928, Alexander
Fleming (1881 - 1955), a British scientist, discovered green
and yellow mold on a culture plate of Staphylococcus bacterium.
This discovery would eventually earn Fleming and two other scientists,
chemist Ernst Boris Chain and pathologist Howard Walter Florey,
a Nobel prize in 1945. In 1944, King George VI had knighted
What was all the commotion behind
green and yellow mold? The mold that Fleming discovered growing
on a left-out culture plate had eliminated some of the Staphylococcus.
Afterwards, he isolated Penicillin notatum and cultivated it,
finding that the mold was deadly to other bacteria as well.
Alexander Fleming had discovered the world's first antibiotic.
In 1929, Fleming published a report
on penicillin and its antibacterial characteristics. Aside from
the discovery, Fleming did not continue work on the antibiotic.
Two other scientists, Ernst Chain and Howard Florey, however,
went on to purify penicillin for medical purposes. Their advances
would rescue the lives of servicemen fighting in World War II.
Sir Alexander Fleming was born
on August 6, 1881, in Ayrshire, Scotland. He studied at Saint
Mary's Hospital Medical School and graduated in 1908. Previous
to Fleming's discovery, his research had included attempts at
slowing and stopping infections. At the time of his find, the
scientist had been working with Staphylococcus bacterium, trying
to reproduce the works of another researcher. Fleming died of
a heart attack on March 11, 1955, in London.
| The public is
able to hear radio broadcasting for the first time. (1920)
| In Italy, the first highway
is established. (1924)
| The very first motor hotel
or motel, Motel Inn, is opened in the state of California. (1925)
| The first water resistant
watch was created in Switzerland. (1926)
| Robert Hutchings Goddard
(1882 - 1945) of the U.S. becomes the first person to launch a
liquid-fuel rocket. (1926)
| Henry Ford (1863 - 1947)
makes the Model A, a new car, available on the market. (1927)
| Edwin Powell Hubble (1889
- 1953) introduces Hubble's law.
| (1929) Albert Szent-Györgyi
(1893 - 1986) isolates vitamin C. He later received the Nobel
prize in 1937 for physiology or medicine. (1928)
| Kodak introduces 16mm color