James 2nd lands at Kinsale, Cork.
In Ulster, O’Neill and O’Donnell bitterly resented the authority of the English, and in 1607, left for the continent, leaving Ulster Leaderless. This led to the “Plantation” of Ulster, with the Protestant English and Scots taking the lands vacated by the earls. But the Catholic Irish maintained links with their emigrants Earls in Europe and arrangements were made for the education of young men in collages abroad and for new religious houses to be established. Thus it was divided Ireland that a war was played out between the English catholic King James II and his protestant son – in – law William of orange. This was part of a great European religious and imperial war, and the Williamite victories at the battles of the Boyne and Aughrim ensured Protestant supremacy.
Society of United Irishmen
Society of United Irishmen founded.
Catholics permitted to
Catholics permitted to vote.
Unsuccessful French invasion
of Bantry Bay; General Hoche's ships dispersed.
Unsuccessful French invasion of Bantry Bay; General Hoche's ships dispersed.
As the protestant ascendancy established itself, Penal Laws were implemented to suppress the Catholic Irish. Irish were forbidden to enter parliament, the army, navy or professions. By 1704 only 4% of the land was owned by the Catholics and all power was held by a small minority of Protestants. However, the revolutions in America and in France turned the thoughts of radical Protestants, Dissenters and Catholics alike towards reform and a more equal society of united Irish men In Belfast and Dublin. Public opinion was calling for Catholic emancipation and in 1798, an uprising took place. Wexford was the scene of many a battles, the one at Vinegar Hill, near Enniscorthy, being particularly infamous. The rising was crushed and the rebels brutally executed.
Catholic Emancipation Act passed, allowing Catholics to sit in parliament.