Anglo-Irish Treaty signed, giving 'Southern Ireland' independence from Britain on certain conditions.
Treaty ratified by Dail, followed by war between supporters of the free state and those against the treaty. Death of Michael Collins, guerrilla commander and leader of Sinn Fein, and important negotiator for 1921 Treaty. Inauguration of Irish Free State, excluding Northern Ireland. Ulysses by James Joyce.
Ceasefire agreed and civil war ends.
The Nationalist revival culminated in the literary work of W.B. Yeats. In 1904 he had helped to found the Abbey theatre in Dublin as a National theatre and he remained its director until his death in 1939. His passing heralded the end of an era. Many writers of world–renown have emerged from Ireland in the 20th Century, including four Noble literature laureates – Yeats, Shaw, Beckett and Heaney. The streets of Dublin city have been immortalised in James Joyce’s Ulysses and by the association with other writers: Sean O’Casey, Patrick Kavanagh, Bram Stoker and others. It is the combination of a rich oral tradition, a tragic history and the mysterious beauty of the Irish landscape that caused the literary arts to flourish in “the land of the saints and scholars”, where for centuries, education has been denied to the majority of the people.
Having celebrated one thousand years since the invasion of the Vikings, Dublin is once again vibrant market city. Signs of a revitalised city are found all long the river Liffey, which was the first, navigated by the Norsemen. Close to wood quay, the heart of the original Viking settlement is Temple Bar, now a lively cultural centre. In the former docklands area, at the mouth of the Liffey, there is now an International Financial service Centre where major worldwide institutions trade in local and global financial markets. Ireland has modernized quickly but still retains links with its cultural and historical past. As a member of the European Union, Ireland enjoys equal status with other European states and at the other end of the turbulent millennium looks forward to a lasting peace on the Island.