In eukaryotic cells, there are large numbers of organelles
which perform specific tasks. Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus that is kept
separate from the cytoplasm by a double membrane
structure. The cytoplasm contains the rest of the organelles such as the
endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria, each necessary for the cell's
reproduction and survival.
The area of the cytoplasm outside of the individual organelles is called the cytosol.
The cytosol is the largest structure in the cell. It composes 54% of the cells
total volume. The cytosol contains thousands of enzymes that are responsible for
the catalyzation of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis
and for the biosynthesis of sugars, fatty acids, and amino acids. The cytosol
takes molecules and breaks them down, so that the individual organelles can use
them. For example, in order for respiration to occur, glucose
is ingested and broken down into pyruvate in the cytosol, for use in the mitochondria.
The cytosol also contains a skeletal structure, called the cytoskeleton.
This structure gives the cell its shape and allows it to organize many of the
chemical reactions that occur in the cytoplasm. Additionally, the cytoskeleton
can aid in the movement of the cell.
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