By about 8,000 BC, the early farmers already had the thought of improving agricultural skills as they settled in a place.
Thousand years later, people learnt to use bacterium to make bread and wine. So they had an idea of modifying varies types of organism.
It develops to genetic modification nowadays.
|1500 BC||Mexican farmers perform traditional genetics by transforming maize by selective breeding.|
Naturalists begin to identify many kinds of hybrid plants — the offspring of breeding between two varieties of plants.
Gregor Mendel begins a meticulous study of specific characteristics he found in various plants which were passed to future plant generations.
|1895||Charles Darwin's 'The Origin of Species' puts forward a theory of evolution by natural selection which has fundamentally influenced the developemnt of biological science and laid the ideological framework of molecular research. In the same year Gregor Mendel writes that there exist inherited qualities, which are later named genes.|
Louis Pasteur defines the role of micro-organisms and establishes the science of microbiology.
European botanists use Mendel's Law to improve plant species. This is the beginning of classic selection.
|1950||First regeneration of entire plants from an in vitro culture.|
Enter James Watson and Francis Crick. These two future Nobel Prize winners discovered the double helix structure of deoxyribonucleic acid, commonly known as DNA. Proteins are made up of strings of amino acids. The number, order and kind of amino acids determine the property of that protein. DNA holds the information necessary to order the amino acids correctly. The DNA transmits this hereditary information from one generation to the next. But it wasn't until three decades later that even larger strides occurred in the field.
|1970s||The gene can now be isolated, or 'interrupted' making gene cloning theoretically possible.|
Researchers develop the ability to isolate genes. Specific genes code for specific protein.
Scientists discover how to transfer pieces of genetic information from one organism to another, allowing the expression of desirable traits in the recipient organism. This is called genetic engineering, one process used in biotechnology. Using the technique of "gene splicing" or "recombinant DNA technology" (rDNA), scientists can add new genetic information to form a new protein which creates traits that protect plants from diseases and pests.
The first commercial application of this technology is used to develop human insulin for diabetes treatment.
|1983||The first transgenic plant: a tobacco plant resistant to an antibiotic.|
Genetically engineered plants resistant to insects, viruses, and bacteria are field tested for the first time.
The first successful field trial of genetically engineered cotton plants (bt cotton) is conducted. DEKALB receives the first patent for transformed corn.
|1993||First GM plant commercialized in the US - a delayed-ripening tomato.|
The Flavr-Savr tomato, designed to resist rotting, is approved by the FDA for sale in the United States.
Monsanto's Roundup Ready soybeans, which are resistant to herbicides, and YieldGard Corn, which is protected from the corn borer, are approved for sale in the United States. Bollgard cotton first commercialized in the US.
|1996||Gm tomato puree hits US stores. EU approves use of biotech company's Monsanto's Roundup Ready GM soya beans in foods for people and feed for animals.|
|1997||GM maize approved for use in processed foods on sale in UK shops ranging from crisps to pasta.|