The Cilician Kingdom was founded in 1080 by the Rubenian dynasty.
This was during the height of the first crusade (1096-1099). During 300
years of its existence, much of it prosperous, Cilicia was bequeathed with
precious samples of science, art, and literature. The Cilicia region flourished
specifically during the reign of King Levon II, who was crowned in 1198.
Christianity in Armenia
Throughout their history, the Armenian's have struggled to
keep their Christian faith. Whether they existed under Persian, Turkey,
or Russian rule, Armenians have always been forced to except foreign values
before their own.
Between Rome and Persia
The introduction of Armenia into a new era coincided with
the fall of the Artashesian Dynasty. They had ruled over the country for
about two centuries. For several centuries, Armenia had gradually lost independence,
and as a result the region became divided up between the Roman Empire and
the Persian Kingdom.
Struggle Against Persia and Turkey
In 1804, a new war broke out between Russia and Persia, which
lasted for 10 years. The Armenian people supported the Russian troops and
opposed the Persians. In October 1812, General Kotliarovski brought victory
to Russia when he attacked Persian troops on the bank the Arax River.
Byzantine and Persian Parts of Armenia
Arab Conquest and
the Bagratuni Dynasty
Armenia was still divided between Byzantine and Persia (V-VI
cc.). The Byzantine part was ruled over by empire administration, while
the Persian part was governed by princes (nakharars) who submitted to the
king, appointed by Persia. Under such conditions, Armenians preserved their
culture due to courage and stamina.
Armenia under Russian Rule
At the beginning of the XX c., Armenia was divided into two
parts. Copper production was the main branch of industry in East Armenia.
Wine and cognac production was developing (80% of its production was exported
to Russia and international markets). Armenia was still in a provincial
position and couldn't develop as a free, independent state.
The Foundation of an Armenian State
The Armenian nation is one of the oldest in existence. The
names of the state "Arminiya" and its people "Armina" are first mentioned
in the cuneiforms of Persian King Darius I (522-486). Armines were considered
an Indo-European nation that migrated to its now motherland from Europe
via Asia Minor. In B.C. times the Indo-European ancestors of modern Armenians
lived in Asia Minor side by side with the Hittite people for 600 years.
Turkish-Persian Conquest and Armenian-Russian
Independence in Armenia remained unaccomplished for various
reasons including interference from Turk Ottomans and Persian conquerors,
which consistently threatened Armenian borders. By the end of the 14th century
the Ottomans conquered Asia Minor and the Balcanian peninsula. In 1453 they
invaded Constantinople and overthrew the Byzantine Empire.