Venus under the clouds.
Venus is the second from the Sun and the nearest to the Earth planet of solar system. Venus is the brightest (after the Sun and the Moon) luminary of the terrestrial sky. In the maximum glitter it achieves -4,4 of a star value. This planet is one of the most beautiful luminaries in the sky. The ancient Roman people named Venus a Goddess of love and beauty.
For the terrestrial observation Venus is not far from the Sum then 48`. This is explained by the fact that Venus is nearer to the Sun then the Earth. During 585 days the periods of the evening and the morning visibilities are changed.
All of the solar system planets may boast their space "records". For example Jupiter is the greatest among the planets the Earth is the most solid. Mars has the greatest mountains. As for Venus, it has the densest atmosphere, the smallest rotation around the axis and the least eccentricity of the orbit Venus is the only planet whose own rotation is opposite itís rotation around the Sun.Atmosphere.
The mass of Venus atmosphere is about 100 times larger than the Earth atmosphere mass. Venus atmosphere contains of carbon dioxide (~97%); nitrogen - about 3%; the water steam more than the tenís part of a per-cent, oxygen the thousandís part of a per-cent. There are also admixtures SO2, H2S, CO, HCL, HF.Clouds consist of 80%-grout of H2SO4. The steam becomes more concentrate with the height.
The temperature of Venus surface is about 750K. And its day fluctuations are not significant.The pressure is about 100at, the gas density is nearly 2 times higher than in the Earth atmosphere. The scientists were greatly disappointed that there is no similar fauna in Venus. But due to the hotbed effect there is no possibility of liquid water existence near Venus surface.
The maximum temperature (150 - 170K) is determined at the 100 - 120km of the height. Then the temperature is increasing with the height. At 12 000 km. it is 600 - 800K. The observations from the space ship showed the thunderstorm in Venus atmosphere.The internal structure.
There are some models of the internal construction of Venus. The most realistic is that Venus has there covers. One is the bark with ~16 km. thickness, then a cloak that is a silicate cover of 3300km. in depth up to the core, which mass is nearly one fourth of all the planetís mass.
The surface structure.
If may be showed like a three-axis ellipsoid which pole compression is two times less then the Earthís one. In equatorial plane the semi-axis of the ellipsoid is 6052,02 Ī 0,1km and 6050,99 Ī 0,14km. The pole semi-axis is 6051,54 Ī 0,1km.
The radiolocation survey of Venus by the soviet station "Venera - 15" and "Venera - 16" brought out in 1984 in the planets satellite`s orbit shoued the tarces of long walls. And they are more distinct in the radio images of the american ship "Magellan" which had been working 4 years (1990 - 1994) in the Venus satellite orbit.Volcanos arises the powerful electric discharges - the real thunderstorm in Venus atmosphere, that were registered by the station of "Venera" series. There is no doubt that there are venusquakes. The planet relief consists of the wide planes, crossed by the mountainís chains and platos. The mountain regions look like the terrestrial continents. The two Venus continents: Ishtar and Afrodita are compared with the continental part of USA. The Maxwell houses are 11 km higher the terrestrial Everest. The mountain region Beta has two giant volcano of a shielding form. They are 4000 m in height. Venus volcanism proves the activity of its depth. But this activity is not so global as the terrestrial one.
The terrestrial bark is broken on some parts and the convective floods of a liquid mass are constantly moving along the boarder line of these parts. In Venus this floods are closed by a thick basaltic barn and the greatest part off long wall is not coming to the Venus surface.
Venus mast have a liquid iron core, but there is no motion inside the core, there is no the charged particles movement, in other words there is no own magnetic field in Venus.
So thanks to the space technics and radiolocation the hidden under the atmosphere and clouds mysteries of Venus were discovered.