Experiment: Crustal Movements
Purpose: To demonstrate how crustal movements create heat.
Glass soft-drink bottle
Cup of water
Cut a circle out of the cardboard that is slightly larger than the top of the bottle in size.
Leave the empty bottle in the freezer for 20 minutes.
Take the bottle out of the freezer.
Dip the cardboard into the cup of water and put the wet paper of the bottle opening.
Rub the palms of your hands together quickly about 20 times.
Quickly put your hands around the outside of the bottle.
Watch the piece of cardboard paper.
One side of the cardboard circle should rise and fall.
When you rubbed your hands together, you produced heat. After putting your hands on the bottle, it caused the cold air in the bottle to warm up and expand. The air molecules inside began to move faster, colliding and pushing up on he paper with enough force to partially lift the paper.
Similarly, sections of the earth’s crust will rub against each other when they collide. The heat they produce causes the rock material to vibrate. If molecules in the solid rock are heated enough, they break away from each other and cause the solid to melt into magma. If this magma is heated even further, it can change into gas. When heated, this material becomes larger. Earthquakes and volcanoes often occur when these materials inside the earth expand, forcing heat, energy, and gaseous materials out through the earth’s surface.